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EAAP35 Conference Programme

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Below you will find the draft EAAP35 programme structure. Timings are subject to change and some details will follow at a later date.


Sunday 22 September 2024

15:00 - 17:00

Registration desk open

Monday 23 September 2024

08:30 - 09:30

Registration desk open

09:00 - 12:00

Morning workshops

(I) Clear Skies, Strong Minds: Mental Fitness for Aviation Excellence (Karien Stadler)
(II) Modeling Emerging Properties of Aerospace Systems (Ioana Koglbauer)
(III) Assessing multiple-task performance (Timesharing: A recap of issues) ( Diane Damos)
(IV) Implementation of Artificial Intelligence in Aviation.A Human-Centric Approach for Practitioners and Organisations (Dimitrios Ziakkas)
(V) The Cognitive Assessment of Aircrew (Randy Georgemiller, Rob Bor,Alastair Gray)
(VI) Equitable Skies: Navigating Inclusivity Through the Integration of DEI Principles in Non-Technical Competencies for a Sustainable Aviation Ecosystem (Allyson Kukel)
12:00 - 13:00


13:00 - 16:00

Afternoon workshops

(I) Building bridges between Aviation Medicine and Aviation Psychology (Katrien Vercauteren)
(II) Positive Organisational Culture in Aviation (Paul Reuter, Cate Bichara, Job Bruggen)
(III) Selection in Aviation: Where do we go from here? (Jenny Eaglestone / Johann Wium)
(IV) Human Factors for AI: Human - AI teaming from human augmentation and assistance to safeguarded advanced automation. (Based on the EASA concept paper (Andrew Kilner/Renée Pelchen-Medwed)
(V) Human Factors in Flight Safety: An Introduction and Overview (Brent Hayward & Alan Hobbs)
(VI) Employee Selection and Mental Health in an Aviation Industry Context: DEI and Best Practices. (Triant Flouris)
16:00 - 18:00

Editorial meeting APAHF

Local AP association meetings

18:00 - 20:00

Welcome Reception

(Wyndham Grand rooftop pool bar & restaurant)

Tuesday 24 September 2024

08:00 - 09:00

Registration desk open

09:00 - 09:45

Conference Opening

09:45 - 10:30

Keynote speaker: Don Harris

Single Pilot Operations: Opportunities and Challenges
10:30 - 11:00

Coffee/tea break (sponsored by AeroAssess)

11:00 - 12:00

Best paper award winners

12:00 - 13:00

Lunch break

13:00 - 14:30

Track A: Fatigue

Chair: Mickaël Causse
Work Schedules, Fatigue and Regeneration in modern Aviation Konrad Wolfgang Kallus

The discussion on fatigue, long working hours and shift systems focussed on single operator workload and stress up to now. Options based on modern technologies with semi-automated work have not been fully explored. The combination of double-operator task sharing with semiautomated work options call for new solutions, especially with respect to task and break sharing. In addition, psychological concepts have been limited to fatigue, biological rhythms, and workload. Regeneration and the role of beaks has received only marginal attention. This contrasts with the fact, that stress-strain, work schedules, breaks and regeneration should always be considered together.
30 years of experience with the recovery-stress-concept are discussed with respect to work design and problems of regeneration and recovery for operators in aviation. Under-recovery and the problem of efficient breaks as well as solutions based on the recovery-stress balance are discussed. Concepts such as detachment from work, coping and debriefing, as well as skills from mental training will be mentioned and elaborated with respect to requirements for new work designs in aviation. The SCS-Tool (subjective scaling of critical situations) will be proposed as a simple way of monitoring new technologies at the workplace.

The impact of self-care on fatigue: Civil airline pilots in Taiwan Chian-Fang G. Cherng

Effective stress management and coping behaviors of civil pilots are and always will be paramount issues for risk control purpose in civil aviation industry. Self-care and resilience are two mandatory indices to embark on stress management and coping. I, accordingly, hypothesize that quantity of civil pilots' self-care and resilience may negatively associate with their complaints of workplace fatigues. That is, this proposal aims 1)to first unveil critical factors in distinguishing the quality of civil pilots' self-care and resilience (top vs. bottom 25%) and then 2)to assess whether civil pilots'scores of self-care and resilience may predict their complaints of workplace fatigues. Flight Resilience Scale compiled by PI's on-going project will be employed in this proposed study. Likewise, self-made Self-care Scale and Fatigue at Flight Work Scale will be developed in this proposed study. Approximately 1,000 civil pilots will be invited to participate in this proposed study. Results derived from the present design are expected to shed light on tight correlation of civil pilots' self-caring, resilience and their workplace psychological fatigues.

Advancing Fatigue and Stress Management in Collegiate Aviation Training: Strategies and Implications Debra Henneberry

The rigorous demands of aviation training and subsequent professional responsibilities expose aviation personnel to high levels of stress and fatigue, significantly affecting their well-being and operational safety. The Purdue Case Study delves into the efficacy of innovative fatigue and stress management strategies implemented within collegiate aviation training programs. Our research aims to illuminate the psychological underpinnings of stress and fatigue in aviation students and to evaluate the impact of structured intervention programs on their management capabilities, ultimately fostering a safer aviation environment.
Through a longitudinal study design, we investigate the prevalence and sources of stress and fatigue among collegiate aviation students, employing a combination of quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews. The core of our intervention encompasses a series of targeted workshops, mindfulness training sessions, and personalized coaching, all underpinned by psychological principles aimed at enhancing students' resilience, stress tolerance, and fatigue management skills. The effectiveness of these interventions is assessed through pre- and post-intervention evaluations, focusing on psychological well-being, academic performance, and simulated flight performance metrics.
Moreover, this study explores the role of technology, including wearable devices and mobile applications, in monitoring and managing stress and fatigue levels, providing students with real-time feedback and personalized coping strategies. The ethical considerations surrounding privacy and the psychological impact of constant monitoring are also critically analyzed.
Our findings suggest that integrating comprehensive fatigue and stress management programs into collegiate aviation training can significantly mitigate the adverse effects of stress and fatigue. These programs contribute to the immediate well-being and performance of aviation students and equip them with essential skills for their professional lives, promoting a culture of safety and resilience within the aviation industry. This research underscores the critical role of psychology in addressing the human factors in aviation safety, offering valuable insights for educators, psychologists, and aviation professionals alike.

Impact of ageing on Air Traffic Controllers sleep and fatigue: a field study Philippe Cabon

This comprehensive study aims to assess the impact of ageing on air traffic controllers (ATCOs) in the context of the increase of the retirement age in Switzerland. Age is known to induce several negative impact on sleep quality and tolerance to shiftwork.
A data collection campaign was conducted over 15 consecutive days using a dedicated smartphone application. During this campaign, participants completed questionnaires tailored to the study's objectives, alongside with sleep logs and providing fatigue ratings at start and the end of each duty. Objective data on ATCOs' sleep was collected using actigraphy.
A total of 155 ATCOs participated in this data collection. Findings reveal that night shifts induce higher levels of fatigue at the beginning of duty compared to early shifts, with this effect becoming more pronounced as ATCOs age. Older ATCOs (50+) exhibit higher fatigue levels at the start of duty compared to those under 50, in line with the hypothesis that older workers, who tend to have a more morning chronotype, are less tolerant to night work.
Interestingly, age, when interacting with consecutive duty factors, appears to have a somewhat protective effect on fatigue at the beginning of duty. Fatigue levels increase less rapidly for those aged 50 and over compared to those under 30 between the 3rd and 4th consecutive day, indicating that older ATCOs manage fatigue better. This suggests that experience plays a role in fatigue management, enabling older individuals to cope better with consecutive days of work.
Furthermore, age exacerbates fatigue when interacting with workload during peak traffic hours, amplifying the effects of workload on fatigue, particularly for the 50+ age group. Additionally, age interacts with sleep quality before duty, where higher sleep quality leads to decreased fatigue at the end of duty, especially for older ATCOs. This implies that ageing increases sensitivity to sleep quality, contrary to studies reporting a deterioration of sleep quality in older individuals.
From this research, several recommendations have been produced to mitigate the effects of working condition on sleep and fatigue of older ATCOs.

Track B: Training and cognitive skills

Chair: Michaela Schwarz
Cognitive Functions of Pilots: Mindfulness, Situation Awareness, and Prospective Memory Skills Zehra Nur Kurtoğlu

While carrying out multiple and complex tasks in a well-practiced sequence, pilots may sometimes encounter unexpected problems and must postpone some tasks with the intent to perform them later and direct their attention to the new stimuli. However, the successful execution of the deferred tasks depends on pilots' prospective memory (PM) skills, which allow them to remember to perform a specific task at the appropriate future moment. In a multi-tasking cockpit environment, a pilot's prospective memory skills may be affected by several variables. Among these, situation awareness (SA) and mindfulness of pilots might be most highly mentioned. SA has long been indicated as an important factor in ensuring flight safety. Mindfulness has also attracted the attention of aviation researchers as a key factor in achieving a healthier and safer work environment. Therefore, this study seeks answers to the research question of "Do pilots' levels of SA and mindfulness play a role in their ability to perform PM tasks during a simulated flight?" To answer this question, a flight scenario was developed based on the relevant literature and the view of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) consisting of a team of airline pilots. To measure PM performance two types of PM tasks were embedded in the scenario (event-based episodic and event-based habitual PM tasks). To assess the SA of participants several SA queries were created based on Endsley's model. Participants consist of first officers working for an airline company. A Boeing 737 NG flight simulator is used and in each flight, a captain pilot plays the role of a captain pilot that is depicted in the scenario. After the simulated flights, all participants fill out self-report scales measuring their mindfulness and piloting job-specific mindfulness. Finally, a group of participants were interviewed regarding their simulator experiences and the tasks they performed. So far, data has been collected from 28 participants and the project will be finalized after reaching 36 participants. After the data collection, multiple linear regression will be performed. The results regarding the relationships between the study variables will be discussed in light of previous research and relevant literature.

Skills and Education Expectations for Flight Deck Human Factors Practitioners Competency Alexandra Kemp

Human factors (HF) design and certification skills are critical for ensuring the safety, efficiency, overall performance of complex flight deck systems and equipment, and providing superior pilot experience. However, the industry is struggling to find competent flight deck HF engineering practitioners. Besides the aging workforce leading to the loss of experienced mentors and an overall increased demand of HF practitioners, the initial research presented at The 34th EAAP Conference and published in the Transportation Research Procedia called 'Development of a flight deck HF design and certification competency taxonomy: Preliminary findings'; also linked this problem to universities not providing the necessary education to transition directly into civil flight deck design and certification and on-the-job training taking years to learn and is challenging without guidelines. The research identified; through job analysis and a survey administered to 14 senior flight deck HF experts, four core areas of competency for civil flight deck HF engineering practitioners. These included aircraft design and operation, HF, systems, engineering, and certification. To further explore these competency areas; three of the authors from the previous paper, will develop a new survey that will be administered to 200 individual HF practitioners from entry to advanced levels, including companies such as Part 23, Part 25, Part 27, Part 29, and eVTOL OEMs, as well as avionics suppliers, and regulators from the Americas and Europe. The survey will use Likert ratings, open ended, and closed ended questions about the practitioners' skills and how they acquired them, whether that be at a university/college, through on-the-job training, self-learning, or through continued education. The analysis of the survey from this new paper will comprise of observation of the median and show the distribution of results in a bar chart. The goal of the paper is to validate and complete the original findings by asking similar questions to the HF practitioners. The results of this questionnaire will create a new competency matrix for three major objectives which are: 1. Recommendations for a flight deck HF university level academic program or continued education 2. Recommendations for on-the-job training, 3. Decision aids for the selection of new hires.

Predictive Validity of Psychometric Assessments in Ab-initio Pilot Training Programs: A Case Study on SunExpress Airlines' Approach to Pilot Selection Deniz Sazak

In 2018, SunExpress Airlines launched its ab-initio Multi-Crew Pilot License (MPL) training program explicitly for university graduates from diverse academic backgrounds, providing them with a sponsored flight training opportunity. This initiative serves a dual objective: to facilitate the acquisition of a pilot license and to secure employment within the airline, underscored by a 10-year contractual commitment from the candidates. From the airline's perspective, this investment helps secure a medium- to long-term supply of new cockpit crew in times when both pilot shortage and fleet growth are realities that call for bold and pragmatic solutions.

By 2021, the first pilots from the ab-initio pilot program graduated from the Authorized Training Organization (ATO), completed their type rating on the Boeing 737, and subsequently integrated into line operations.

The presentation provides an overview of all stages of the assessment process and the experiences gained along the way. Indicators for the predictive validity of the psychometric methods employed are presented and discussed in light of regulation AMC1 CAT.GEN.MPA.175(b) mandated by the European Union Aviation Safety Agency's (EASA).

Through this scientific inquiry, we aim to contribute to the discourse on selection methods, offering perspectives on enhancing the precision of psychological assessments in predicting professional success in this highly specialized field.

Safety in the Cabin: A Comprehensive Analysis of Cabin Crew Risk Perception Ezgi Yıldız

Safety in the Cabin: A Comprehensive Analysis of Cabin Crew Risk Perception

Risk perception is crucial for managing safety in aviation, a field where accurate risk assessment can prevent adverse outcomes. While extensive research has focused on pilots, the study of cabin crew members' risk perceptions—vital for safety, emergency response, and passenger management—remains underexplored. This research aims to fill this gap by examining how demographic and individual differences, such as locus of control, intolerance to uncertainty and organizational culture, influence cabin crew members' risk perceptions. Individuals comfortable with ambiguity may perceive safety risks as less severe, enhancing their decision-making in uncertain situations. A safety-focused organizational culture that encourages open communication can further elevate risk awareness and proactive risk management. Additionally, those with an internal locus of control, believing in their ability to influence outcomes, may view risks as more controllable, positively impacting their approach to safety threats. This study will utilize a mixed-methods approach, incorporating online surveys and face-to-face interviews to investigate the risk perceptions of 150 cabin crew members from airline companies based in Türkiye. Scheduled for mid-March distribution, the surveys will assess risk perception and collect data on demographics, tolerance to uncertainty, locus of control and organizational culture. Additionally, 20 cabin crew members will participate in detailed interviews using specific scenarios to provide deeper insights. Data collection is expected to be completed by mid-May. This study will explore how age, experience, status, risk perception, tolerance to uncertainty, locus of control, and organizational culture relate to each other using correlational analyses. It will employ Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine if these variables significantly differ across groups defined by age, experience, and status. Regression analyses will identify key predictors of risk perception. Interview data will be analyzed with MAXQDA software through content analysis to interpret qualitative findings. The findings of this study are expected to provide crucial insights into the risk perceptions of cabin crew members, a relatively under-explored area in aviation safety research, by examining how demographic factors, individual differences, and organizational culture influence their risk assessment and decision-making processes, potentially leading to enhanced safety protocols and training programs tailored to address these insights, thereby improving overall safety and incident management in the aviation sector.

Track C: AI (Part 1)

Chair: Dimitrios Ziakkas
Detection of Aviation Safety Information System Deficiencies: An Explorative Study Stathis Malakis

The international air transportation system is constantly evolving to take advantage of new technologies, to accommodate growth in the volume of air traffic, to integrate new types of aircraft, to increase efficiency, and to maintain or increase safety. In this context Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine learning (ML) are finding their way into the aviation environment. Aviation Safety Management Systems (SMS) are increasingly stretched to their capacity to meet operational and regulatory demands. As part of the SMS of an airline, safety information management is seen and administrated mostly through safety promotion. However, many accidents revealed that developing and sustaining a successful safety information system requires more than just complying with regulatory framework through a formal SMS.
The quality of an organization's safety information system is one of the most important factors that distinguish organizations that have low accident rates. Sound decision-making about risk is dependent on having appropriate information. Otherwise, decisions are made on the basis of past success and unrealistic risk assessments.
This paper presents the results from an explorative study to spot safety information systems deficiencies. The aim of the study was twofold. Firstly, to spot safety information systems deficiencies in the form of patterns and secondly to propose a set of guiding principles in integrating new technologies such as AI and ML and eliminate or mitigate these patterns. We used a variety of data collection methods such as, analysis of incidents and accidents, interviews with safety practitioners and participation in expert group discussions and workshops. The proposed set of safety information systems together with the guiding principles can be useful in addressing current and emerging safety challenges in the aviation environment.

Investigating the role of an AI-based assistant system in pilot's decision-making process – an interview study Angela Menig

The introduction of cockpit assistant systems based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) holds the potential to significantly increase flight safety and efficiency, especially in the context of future reduced crew operations. Thereby, the reduced cockpit crew leads to a bottleneck in information acquisition and processing, particularly in complex and time-critical situations. However, there is limited understanding of the extent to which an AI-based system could effectively assist pilots in the decision-making process.
This research paper investigates the pilot's decision-making process - which plays a central role in human-machine interaction - in a complex decision-making scenario with and without the support of a Level 1B AI-based assistant system (EASA Roadmap 2.0, 2023). In a complex inflight diversion-scenario, the AI-based assistant system provides an assessment of the risks and benefits of possible alternates in a user-friendly interface, enabling a direct comparison of the given options. Semi-standardized expert interviews were conducted with 12 commercial aviation pilots. The experts were asked to perform a decision-making process for a complex scenario using the conventional FORDEC model with and without the support of the AI-based cockpit assistant. During the decision-making process, the experts were instructed to think aloud. They were also requested to rate the trustworthiness and user-friendliness of the AI-based system. In addition, they were asked to rate their resulting workload for each condition.
The results for the condition without an AI-based system reveal that the biggest challenges in the given complex scenario are the time-consuming search for information and the operational consequences. Working with the AI-based cockpit assistant was experienced as a trustworthy, usable and valuable support in selecting the most suitable option, while the workload was rated significantly lower compared to the condition without an AI-based system. Other possible functions of the AI-based system suggested by the experts were a filter function for faster information organization and a system-supported ranking of alternates - which implies an extending the human-machine interaction to higher collaborative AI-Levels. However, the pilots stated that the final decision should be made by the person in the cockpit.

Decision-Making Preferences in AI Support for Future Flight Operations: A User Study Michelle Dieter

As aviation continues to evolve, the integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in flight operations has become an area of increasing interest, encompassing both commercial aviation and emerging crewed or uncrewed air taxi services. However, this poses the challenge of how to allocate tasks between humans and AI or humans and an automated system. Certain types of tasks and responsibilities are better suited to humans, while others can be handled more efficiently by automation or even AI-based automation. Yet one question remains unanswered, namely which decisions humans prefer to make themselves, which ones should be made by automation, and which decisions should be made as a team.
In many related research papers, human factors such as performance and workload are considered. In this paper, however, the focus is on the perspective of the human operator, encompassing both commercial aviation and air taxi operations. This study explores which decisions potential operators in these domains would like to delegate to an automated system and which decisions they would like to make on their own. For this purpose, a user study was designed in which potential operators from both commercial aviation and air taxi services are given different scenarios and assess who should be responsible for making the decision in a certain situation. Commercial pilots, non-pilots with aviation knowledge, and people with no prior knowledge were interviewed to gather a comprehensive understanding of decision-making preferences across different backgrounds and expertise levels.

From Turing Test to Chinese Room Argument: How to Apply Artificial Intelligence in Aviation Wen-Chin Li

The emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) with advanced large language model (LLM) offers promising approaches for enhancing the capacity of textual analysis. Both Turing Test and the Chinese Room Argument are primarily tests of the power of AI's understanding but based on different perspectives. Current AI systems have demonstrated the capacity for achieving defined test goals for intelligence. The aviation industry is increasingly interested in adopting AI to improve efficiency, safety, and cost efficiency. Generative Pre-trained Transformers' (GPT) capability to reduce resource-intensive analytics in accident causation classification. This study investigates the potential and challenges of using AI to analyze human factors involved in aviation accidents based on the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). Six subject-matter experts in aviation human factors and AI domain participated in this research. All participants were familiar with the HFACS framework to analyze aviation accident reports and the output of GPT which were based on the prompt engineering developed by the research team. Considerations to the parameter calibration are: Top P of 0.2, Frequency Penalty of 0.2 and a Presence Penalty of 0.8. This research creates a framework to perform its initial generation and training using GE235 accident investigation report from TTSB. The pre-trained model is based on a large amount of data to predict the next word in a sequence which allows the model to learn relationships between the words and their meaning in the accident investigation reports. Emergent behaviors of AI in aviation can be both a source of problem-solving and safety concerns. These unpredicted behaviors offer insights into the potential of AI systems to develop novel solutions and strategies for complex problems in complicated aviation domains. Initial discoveries demonstrated that the AI model could supply a consistent HFACS framework and populate these dimensions with moderate accuracy. There are still different opinions on AI applications in real-world operations with ethics and safety concerns. While there is clear potential for GPT models to supplement accident analysis within the HFACS framework, there is still more work to synergize the two systems together for effective communication.

14:30 - 15:00

Coffee/tea break

15:00 - 16:30

Track D: HF in Military Ops

Chair: Annemarie Landman
Barriers to mental health seeking among army aviation personnel Aric Raus

OVERVIEW: Aviation operations require constant vigilance where personnel must perform duties under significant physical and psychological stress. Prolonged or intense stress events can lead to mental health issues, even among those with formal resilience training. Barriers to seeking mental health services prevent military aviation personnel from receiving the assistance they need, yet little is known about these barriers, the levels of undiagnosed symptoms, and aviators' acceptance of various mental wellness self-help options.

METHODS: Quantitative survey responses were collected from more than 425 current and former U.S. Army Aviation aircrews, ATC personnel, and UAS operators via social media and snowball sampling between October 2023 and February 2024. Information regarding barriers to seeking mental healthcare were determined using the Barriers to Access to Care Evaluation - Version 3 (BACEV3); self-assessed anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress symptoms were assessed via the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 2 (GAD2), Public Health Questionnaire 2 (PHQ2), and the four-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PTSD4-5). Finally, the perceived acceptability of self-help mental wellness options were assessed via six author-developed questions describing Mindfulness Training, Transcendental Meditation, and non-directed instrument-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (I-CBT), both with and without explicit civilian or military regulator approval.

RESULTS: The results indicate that organizational stigma and attitudinal barriers play the largest role in preventing U.S. Army Aviation personnel from seeking mental healthcare, while instrumental barriers play a lesser but significant role among UAS operators. Self-assessed mental health symptom levels were nearly four times those documented in previous research utilizing medical records reviews, with UAS operators exhibiting higher levels than other aviation career fields. Finally, aviators perceived I-CBT and Mindfulness Training as the most acceptable among the self-help mental wellness options examined.

DISCUSSION: These findings indicate that a large percentage of U.S. Army Aviation personnel may operate with diagnosable levels of mental health symptoms. To overcome mental health hesitance, outreach should focus on combatting perceived stigma by employers and regulators, along with dispelling internal mindsets against mental health treatment within the community. Mindfulness Training and I-CBT demonstrate promising self-help options, providing possible avenues for overcoming stigma and attitudinal barriers among this and other aviation populations.

An assessment of how military pilots cope with complexity and risk in hostile environments Georgios Androulakis

In military aviation, missions have become increasingly complex as a large number of components interact together in real time, automated systems have become less transparent to work with, new variabilities in work organization have emerged and uncertainty gets even higher (e.g. delayed or unreliable data, unknown intentions and capabilities of enemy forces). The increasing complexity has posed some challenges to human factors on how to define complexity, identify observable markers of complexity, create metrics of complexity and finally, assess its impact on cognitive skills required to manage systems safely. This study developed a classification scheme of Complexity Contributing Factors (CCFs), on the basis of a series of workshops with experienced F-16 pilots and flight instructors and classified them into four classes of complexity. Our first aim was to use factor analysis to see whether all CCFs could be assigned into the four classes of complexity as predicted by the previous theoretical studies and our workshops. The second aim was to examine whether the four classes of complexity could make good predictions of some mission outcomes. To this extent, multiple linear regression analysis was performed for five measures of mission outcome. Finally, the third aim was to look deeper into these links between complexity classes and mission outcomes by deriving several risk patterns from classification trees.
After a series of structured workshops, a classification scheme of 50 CCFs was developed and tested in a large number of operational missions (n=230). Principal Components Analysis has verified four complexity classes that provided a structure for the CCFs while multiple linear regression analysis showed that the four classes of complexity correlated well with mission success outcomes. The study provides evidence that the classification scheme of complexity considers a variety of observable markers (CCFs) which can be used to rate complexity and introduce mission changes that create a safer environment for military missions.

Navigating Generational Differences in Cognitive Proficiency among USAF Aviators John Heaton

Introduction: The dynamics of modern society have given rise to distinct generational cohorts, each characterized by unique perspectives and attributes. Within the United States Air Force (USAF), understanding the cognitive disparities among Generation X, Millennials, and Generation Z aviators is imperative for optimizing training protocols and bolstering retention efforts. This study delves into the cognitive differentiations across these generational cohorts within the USAF aviation community.

Methods: Analyzing data from 33,090 pilot applicants who underwent comprehensive computer-based intelligence testing (Multidimensional Aptitude Battery-II) and neuropsychological screening (MicroCog) during their initial flying class evaluation, this research categorizes participants into Generation X (n=2061), Millennials (n=23,910), and Generation Z (n=7119) based on their birth years. Comparative analyses examine discrepancies across generations in cognitive proficiencies, while considering demographic variables such as gender, ethnicity, and commissioning source.

Results: Findings reveal a declining trend in full-scale intelligence scores across generations (121.05 for Generation X, 120.56 for Millennials, and 119.35 for Generation Z). Notably, there is a substantial decline in performance-based aptitudes, particularly visuospatial skills (122.44 for Generation X, 119.74 for Millennials, and 116.88 for Generation Z), alongside an upward trajectory in verbal scores (116.96 for Generation X, 118.74 for Millennials, and 119.22 for Generation Z). Analysis of MicroCog scores indicates similar general cognitive functioning across generations (97.028 for Generation X, 98.88 for Millennials, and 96.34 for Generation Z), with a slight increase in general cognitive proficiency (102.46 for Generation X, 106.08 for Millennials, and 107.09 for Generation Z). Subtest scores demonstrate a significant increase in memory across generations (105.31 for Generation X, 112.14 for Millennials, and 114.88 for Generation Z), and a decline in reaction time (102.85 for Generation X, 94.89 for Millennials, and 85.13 for Generation Z).

Discussion: The observed variances in cognitive proficiencies align with prevailing literature on intergenerational distinctions. Recognizing these differences is pivotal for tailoring training methodologies and refining retention initiatives within the USAF aviation community. These generational differences highlight their importance in shaping effective training paradigms and strategies for retaining personnel.

Assessment of Suitability for United States Air Force Pilots Joe Wood

In military aviation, there is a tradition of attempting to select only those candidates with high intelligence, emotional maturity and strong motivation to fly. In the United States Air Force (USAF), pilots are chosen through multiple processes. Often, they are selected using scores from the Pilot Candidate Selection Method (PCSM). PCSM scores are based on a formula derived from the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test-Pilot composite (an aptitude test), Test of Basic Aviation Skills and flying hours. Alternatively, Air National Guard (ANG) pilots are chosen by their unit leadership in a more subjective process based on job performance and motivation. Both methods have resulted in acquiring pilots with superior intelligence, desirable attributes, such as relatively low neuroticism and high conscientiousness, and strong motivation to fly.

A minority of these selected pilots have mental health histories, or general concerns about their suitability for coping with the rigors of the military flying environment. The Aeromedical Consultation Service has a developed process for evaluating pilot applicants with these concerns. This presentation will summarize this process. It will include an outline of regulations that pertain to psychological suitability for military aviation, a summary of cognitive (e.g. MAB, MicroCog) and psychological tests (NEO-PI-3, MMPI-2) that are utilized, and a description of the psychologist/psychiatrist teams that interview the applicant. The collection and appropriate use of aviation-specific norms will also be included. Finally, a de-identified and aggregated case study will be utilized to describe the ACS process of assessing for capable, psychologically healthy, and motivated pilots.

Track E: Immersive technologies

Chair: Johan Wium
Prototyping and Evaluation of a Virtual Tower Work Station Julia Schön

While Remote Tower Solutions are readily available the smallest aerodromes with less revenue cannot justify the cost to go remote. For this purpose, the DLR German Aerospace Centre is in the midst of creating a low-cost remote tower prototype, specifically for uncontrolled aerodromes. The DLR prototype combines two panoramic cameras and a Pan-Tilt-Zoom-camera (PTZ), which are visualised through a Head Mounted Device in Virtual Reality (VR). After a complete overhaul, the VR immersion now offers both the out-the-window view of a traditional tower, as well as all necessary workstation systems and interactions. While the PTZ-camera is controlled through a combination of head movements and a handheld controller, the User Interface (UI) is operated with hands-free interactions and gestures. 22 Air Traffic Control Officers (ATCOs) and Aerodrome Flight Information Service Officers (AFISOs) visited the DLR site to test the prototype in a validation study. They stayed within the VR immersion for an hour, exploring the work station on their own, completing multiple tasks aimed to further deepen their knowledge of the camera controls and the User Interface, and observed live traffic of a local aerodrome in a shadow mode setting. During the immersion the ATCOs and AFISOs were instructed to use the Think Aloud method to give direct feedback to the system. Cyber Sickness levels, the usability of the camera controls, the UI, and the system as a whole and specific potential future use cases were evaluated by standard questionnaires and a concluding interview. The feedback from both the Think Aloud Method and the following interview were analyzed through a Qualitative Content Analysis regarding the ergonomics and usability of the prototype as well as the functionality as a work station. An immersion of one hour increases cybersickness slightly, but still within acceptable levels. While the UI and the system have a good usability, the PTZ controls are still lacking. Multiple points of improvement were able to be identified.

The effect of a single-session online virtual reality therapy program on fear of flying: The results of a pilot study Zehra Ozdil Arikan

The effect of a single-session online virtual reality therapy program on fear of flying: The results of a pilot study

In the ever-evolving and revolutionary age of technology, flying has transformed into a vital element of our worldwide community.
Virtual reality is one of the most studied and proven fields for fear of flying in recent years (Wiederhold, et al., 1998). Studies have shown that the most effective treatments for fear of flying are approaches involving in vivo exposure in which the individual is specifically assessed. Compared to in vivo exposure, virtual reality was found to contribute more in terms of therapist control (Oakes, & Bor, 2010b).
Psychotherapy applying single treatment sessions has been widely acknowledged as a valid and scientifically supported approach (Young & Jebreen, 2019). Researchers pointed out that a single session of VR therapy is effective for fear of flying one-year follow-up compared to the information-only group (Mühlerberger, et al., 2006).
The current pilot study aims to prove the effectiveness of online therapy in a single session for fear of flying. A randomized controlled design was emphasized in the study by six therapists who have MA/MSc in psychology and CBT certification.
Accordingly, 30 people who applied voluntarily were divided into two groups randomly: a) psychoeducation and VR exposure b) psychoeducation-only. All participants were given a set of scales consisting: FAM (Flight Anxiety Modality Questionnaire), FAS (Flight Anxiety Situations Questionnaire), and a Visual Analogue Flight Anxiety Scale (VAFAS), to assess the level of fear of flying before and one month after the treatment. This work was supported by Research Fund of Ibn Haldun University. Project Name: Online Single Session Virtual Reality Therapy Programme for Fear of Flying. Project Number: 2238.
Preliminary results indicated that the VR intervention is more successful in reducing fear of flying only for the FAS but not for FAM and VAFAS scores in comparison to the psychoeducation-only group in the one-month follow-up. Moreover, the pretest-posttest comparison indicated that fear of flying and anxiety levels decreased significantly in FAM and VAFAS values the results.

Into The Virtual Cockpit: Transforming Pilot Selection With Immersive Technologies Karien Stadler

In the dynamic landscape of advanced technologies and the swift evolution of assessment methodologies, aviation psychologists face the challenge of adapting to industry trends and maintaining the effectiveness of selection processes. As today's pilots belong to a digitally fluent generation, accustomed to constant interaction with mobile devices, immersive training platforms, and the ubiquitous internet of things, they expect selection procedures that reflect their technological sophistication. This expectation suggests a rising trend towards immersive technologies in assessments. However, despite the anticipation surrounding technological advancements, a comprehensive review of scientific literature reveals several limitations, emphasizing the importance of research to keep pace with these innovations. While validity studies and vendor research provide valuable insights, third-party or peer-reviewed research is essential to enhance the scientific robustness of technology-enabled assessments for selection. This research seeks to explore uncharted territories in the field of behavioural assessment by leveraging immersive technologies for pilot selection. Recent advancements in simulation technologies, including Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), and Virtual Human (VH) intelligent agents, offer promising avenues for developing research tools aimed at achieving a more predictive and ecologically valid assessment of human behaviour. The journey into immersive assessments in aviation represents not only a leap into the future but also a strategic evolution that necessitates a careful balance between innovation and caution. By embracing the potential of immersive technologies and addressing associated challenges, aviation psychologists can foster a culture of responsible progress, thereby setting new standards for excellence in aviation selection processes.

Track F: AI (Part 2)

Chair: Lea-Sophie Vink
Exploring Coordination and Collaboration in Human AI Teaming (HAT) – EASA AI Concept paper V2.0 Andrew KILNER

The aviation industry has always been at the fore front of technological innovation. With increasing computing power and the desire to reduce workload, increase efficiency and effectively manage unexpected events AI applications are moving from the background to the foreground, and will move from being technical systems supporting a human – human team to become a human-AI system team. The EU AI act (2021) has the key provision of "Human Oversight" with the requirement of human control especially in high- risk situations. This keeps the human-centred approach alive and with the EASA AI roadmap v2.0 (May 2023) EASA is addressing the challenges and opportunities of AI in aviation. The EASA concept paper: guidance for Level 1 & 2 machine learning application Issue 02 (February 2024) proposes means of compliance in the area of human factors for AI in order to understand how the relationship between people and AI can be managed into an effective 'team'.

In the EASA Concept Paper cooperation and collaboration processes relate specifically to pre-defined AI-levels. Lower AI levels (Level 1A) supports information acquisition, and information analysis. Level 1B supports decision making. AI level 2 encompasses directed decision making process with full authority of the end-user (2A) and a supervised decision making process (2B). The EASA concept paper elaborates the different processes the AI levels are based on, it describes a full consideration of Human Factors within the context of AI system development.

Moving from the lower levels of AI to the higher levels of AI requires cooperation and collaboration between the end user and the AI based system. Within the scope of Issue 2.0 of the EASA AI Concept paper, the move from Level 2A to Level 2B is defined (in part) by the move from cooperation to collaboration. EASA has introduced these terms to reflect differences in the extent of team working between AI and human task contributors. The terms are new and have not been widely discussed or shared.

This paper will describe, share and discuss the term for an audience who will be central in ensuring the principles of the EASA Concept paper are implemented in AI based systems.

Flight Training in the Age of AI: Instructors' Insights on New Technological Frontiers İbrahim SARIKAYA

In 2023, the book "Implementation Guide for Artificial Intelligence in Aviation" (Ziakkas & Vink, 2023) was published. The book explores how Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be implemented in the aviation industry. It encompasses various topics ranging from integrating AI in flight training and operations, AI in air traffic management, customer experience, and airport and technical operations to ethical and legal concerns about the use of AI in aviation. Although AI's importance in aviation is growing, its application in Turkish aviation industry remains limited, with only minor implementations observed. Considering the increased use of AI in the global aviation industry, it is important to investigate the attitudes of aviation personnel toward AI utilization in the field. As mentioned, there are various possibilities for the implementation of AI in aviation. Nonetheless, flight training is one of the most crucial steps in aviation and significantly contributes to aviation safety. Hence, the current study aims to examine instructor's attitudes toward implementing AI in flight training. To this end, data will be collected from 20 flight instructors working in airline companies based in Türkiye. The instructors will be selected from different fleets and will consist of simulator, ground, and line instructors. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted to obtain an in-depth understanding of their opinions toward the implementation of AI in flight training. The questions will evaluate instructors' experiences with AI and virtual reality technologies in flight training, their views on the benefits of these technologies over traditional methods, and their potential effects on training effectiveness and safety. Additionally, instructors' perspectives on using AI to monitor and evaluate student performance, create personalized training programs, the challenges encountered during technology integration, and the steps required for successful integration will be explored. The interviews will be coded and analyzed using MAXQDA, employing a content analysis technique. The current study's findings will shed light on the flight instructors' perceptions of AI in flight training, highlighting its benefits over traditional methods, and identifying challenges and strategies for effective AI integration, thereby contributing to enhanced training effectiveness and aviation safety.

Supporting Post-Flight Debriefs using AI Mathijs Henquet

Post-flight debriefings between instructor and trainee are essential in aviation training to facilitate knowledge transfer, improve skills, and develop competencies. However, the responsibility for note-taking often falls on the instructor and trainee, leading to potential omissions or inaccuracies due to distractions or interruptions. Proper reporting is crucial for monitoring progress and to give accurate feedback for learning.

To support the post-flight debrief, we developed an Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based system called AI-Assisted Debrief (AAD). The AAD system supports the flight debriefing process through speech recognition and Large Language Models (LLMs). The approach involves automatically transcribing audio recordings into textual transcripts which are then summarized by an LLM to obtain a concise textual summary of the debrief.

Usually, the pilots' abilities are assessed using behavioural competencies and associated Performance Indicators (PIs). The LLMs were utilized to assess the presence of the expected competencies as discussed during the debrief. To test AAD we created a dataset with debrief audio recordings under the supervision of two senior instructor pilots.

Results shows that the AAD system has the capability to improve the overall flight debriefing process. Qualitative evaluation on our test dataset demonstrates AAD is able to automatically recognize the presence of desired pilot competencies as discussed during the debrief, suggesting an avenue to enhance aviation training by tracking these over time. Moreover, AAD is able to automatically identify points of feedback and other crucial information from the debrief, streamlining the reporting process. Propelling aviation training into the AI era, AAD paves the way for a more accurate, efficient, and comprehensive approach to pilot training, setting a new standard for excellence in the skies.

Enhancing Aviation Risk Assessment through Artificial Intelligence: The Single Pilot Operations Case Study Dimitrios Ziakkas

The integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) into aviation risk assessment presents an innovative approach to enhancing safety and efficiency, particularly in the context of Single Pilot Operations (SPO)in commercial aviation. This paper explores the potential of AI algorithms in mitigating risks associated with SPO, where the burden of tasks and decision-making rests on a single pilot, thereby increasing the susceptibility to human error. The study evaluates their effectiveness in real-time risk assessment and management by examining various AI methodologies, including machine learning, natural language processing, and predictive analytics.

The case study approach underscores specific scenarios where AI can assist in decision-making processes, such as abnormal weather conditions, technical malfunctions, and emergency situations, by providing the single pilot with advanced situational awareness and predictive insights. Data-driven AI systems are proposed to analyze historical flight data, pilot performance, and environmental factors to predict potential risks and suggest optimal courses of action. The paper discusses the development of an AI-assisted risk assessment framework that could function as a copilot, offering decision support to the lone aviator.

Furthermore, ethical considerations and the implications of AI in human-centered operations are critically examined. The research outlines the challenges of implementing AI in the highly regulated aviation industry, including issues of trust, accountability, and the need for robust AI governance frameworks. The presented case studies emphasize the necessity for stringent validation and certification processes to ensure the reliability and safety of AI applications in aviation.

In conclusion, this study highlights the transformative potential of AI in aviation risk assessment, with a particular focus on enhancing SPO. By leveraging advanced AI technologies, the aviation industry can move towards a future where AI not only complements but significantly augments human capabilities, leading to safer and more resilient flight operations.

16:30 - 18:30

EAAP General Assembly - Part II

Wednesday 25 September 2024

08:00 - 09:00

Registration desk open

09:00 - 09:45

Keynote speaker 2

09:45 - 10:15

Poster Pitches

In this quick fire session poster authors can present their poster on 1 slide, max 2 minutes per poster.
10:30 - 11:30

Coffee & Posters

This extended coffee break will double up as a poster session.
11:30 - 13:00

Track G: Fatigue & Workload

Chair: Sonja Biede
Identifying Informative Statistical Eye-Tracking Features for Air Traffic Controller Workload Assessment with Machine Learning Lothar Meyer

A shift of an en-route air traffic controller (ATCO) can be quite challenging in regards to varying traffic complexity and resulting workload. Periods may turn out rather calm and monotonous, and others are stressful and highly demanding. The provision of mental effort must meet this challenge. The ATCO is mandated to cease operations when in doubt about current task performance abilities, thus relying on the reliable self-evaluation of workload. Unfortunately, it is precisely work over- and underload where self-evaluations may prove inaccurate. Monitoring workload during ongoing operations, or even predicting, using nonintrusive eye-tracking and head movement measurements could provide accurate support for self-evaluation. 
In this paper, we validated non-intrusive eye-tracking and head-movement indicators for predicting workload to support ATCO's self-evaluation. This will allow, e.g., to open or close sectors under more accurate consideration of the individual's state, identifying overand underload risk. We investigated 18 ATCOs during simulated working sessions with three varying traffic load scenarios (low, medium, high taskload), adhering to a counterbalanced, within-subjects design. We applied non-intrusive eye tracking and the Cooper-Harper Workload Scale (CHS). Further, we employed a wearable electroencephalography (EEG) device optimized for monitoring workload.
We apply five classical machine learning (ML) models to test their effectiveness in estimating the workload level, namely Logistic Regression (LR), Decision Tree (DT), Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Classifier (SVC) and Histogram-based Gradient Boosting Classification Tree (HGBC). We use eye-tracking data as an input for the ML models labeling them based on CHS scores and EEG-based workload variable (averaged within 1 minute
time intervals). The outcomes yielded promising results in the realm of workload-level estimation, with accuracy rates reaching as high as 96% (f1-score=0.84) in correctly predicting instances of very high EEG-based workload level and 88% accuracy (f1-score=0.82) in predicting 3 different levels of workload. This implies the possibility of identifying periods of possible overload with sufficient accuracy with the delay of 1 minute.
Focusing on the best-performing models, we applied feature selection techniques to identify key eye-tracking features. Three features emerged as significant across all tasks: saccade duration sd, right blink closing amplitude max, and left pupil diameter mean.
These findings demonstrate the strong association between specific eye-tracking features and ATCO WL. Combining physiological data with advanced analytical methods offers significant potential for real-time ATCO WL monitoring and management, impacting ATC system design and training programs.

Seeing workload and acute fatigue in real-time: Computational Human Performance and the frontier of operations management Lea Sophie Vink

In Air Traffic Management, personnel consistently deal with alternating patterns of high- and low-demand operations. Occasionally, high demand imposed by frequency or complexity of air traffic may exceed a controller's cognitive capacity which can lead to cognitive overload and place air traffic at risk. Austro Control has implemented a multiple tier system, or 'ensemble learning model' to take air space complexity and convert it through a computational model to produce a validated computational human performance index which can represent workload, acute fatigue, human error rates and other human performance metrics. Utilising machine learning, the system can now predict cognitive overloads in real-time. This paper introduces the concept of computational human performance briefly and highlights the viability and usefulness of such an approach for managing human performance by analysing 10 case study overloads that occurred over the summer of 2023. Results show that acute fatigue, reduction in reaction time and increased human error rates precedes overloads by a predictable amount when considering forecasted weather, traffic complexity and workload. The results further highlight weak signal patterns that reveal consistencies in how overloads look and challenge some of the existing best practice on the use of controllers within recognised fatigue risk management rules.

Assessing Fatigue Risk and Mitigation Strategies for Air Traffic Controllers in European Air Traffic Service Providers Philippe Cabon

Air Traffic Controllers (ATCOs) face numerous fatigue-related challenges due to their irregular working hours and demanding workload. In response to European regulations aimed at preventing ATCO fatigue and stress, a scientific evaluation funded by the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) was undertaken across member states. The objective of this research was to assess the level of fatigue risk and identify primary contributing factors within current operations.
The research methodology employed a multifaceted approach, combining various data collection methods across a sample of European Air Traffic Service Providers (ATSPs). This included interviews and roster analysis to evaluate current scheduling practices and fatigue management, alongside field data collection from six representative ATSPs. Sleep, fatigue, and workload data were collected using a dedicated smartphone application over a minimum period of 10 days, involving a total of 216 volunteer ATCOs. A total of 2,416 working sessions have been recorded.
Additionally, sleep actigraphy were conducted in five of the ATSPs to validate subjective data.
Statistical analysis of fatigue data revealed that 5.6% of analyzed duties were associated with a critical level of fatigue, as indicated by values exceeding 5 on the Samn Perelli scale. The top five contributing factors to these critical fatigue levels are: night shifts, challenging weather conditions, monotonous traffic situations, accumulated sleep debt, and extended working hours without breaks.
Based on the findings, several recommendations were elaborated to improve fatigue prevention and mitigation at different levels (predictive, proactive and reactive). These encompass improvements to the rostering process, enhanced fatigue monitoring mechanisms, and practical interventions within work organizations and rest facilities.

Results and Implications of objective Fatigue and Performance measurements in five European Air Traffic Service Providers. Alwin van Drongelen

Air Traffic Controllers (ATCOs) face numerous fatigue-related challenges due to irregular working hours and demanding workload. In response to the European regulations aimed at preventing ATCO fatigue and stress, a scientific evaluation funded by the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) was undertaken across member states. The objective of this study was to assess the level of fatigue risk and identify primary contributing factors within current ATSP operations.

To do so, objective fatigue (eye tracking) and performance (PVT) data was gathered in five ATSPs (N = 20). Alongside the objective measurements, fatigue (SP), sleepiness (KSS), and workload (ISA, RSME) questionnaires were administered hourly. Measurements took place during ten so-called fatigue hotspot shifts, which were determined using both biomathematical and expert analyses.

The results showed that mean fatigue and sleepiness experienced was moderate and below critical fatigue- and sleepiness levels for the majority of the time. A clear increase in fatigue could be seen throughout shifts, as shown by the difference between mean subjective fatigue/sleepiness levels before and after the duty, and the corresponding PVT metrics. Significant correlations were found between subjective fatigue and sleepiness ratings on the one hand, and eye tracking metrics reflecting the percentage of time the eyes were closed for more than 70 or 80 percent (PERCLOS) on the other hand. No significant correlations were found between the subjective fatigue and sleepiness ratings and any of the PVT metrics. Furthermore, no significant correlations were found between the eye tracking metrics and the subjective workload ratings.

The outcomes underline that the different types of fatigue-related outcome measures (subjective, objective, performance based) reflect different concepts and should be seen as complementary to one another. As such, relying on self-reported ratings alone may not offer a comprehensive understanding of an individual's fatigue levels and associated performance capabilities. The feasibility of using current objective measurement techniques by ATSPs themselves is however quite low, especially given the time, labour and operational constraints involved. Future research should therefore target technological developments such as wireless EEG, fNIRs, speech analysis, and web-cam based eye tracking to assess fatigue in a more accessible and unobtrusive way.

Track H: Human Performance

Chair: André Droog
The effect of personality traits and flight experience on pilots' cognitive and affective responses to simulated in-flight hazards Jiayu Chen

Startle and surprise are often implicated in suboptimal pilot responses to in-flight hazards. There has been an increasing interest in investigating causes and countermeasures to startle and surprise. In the current study, the effects of personality traits and flight experience are investigated. Using correlation analysis, the relationship between several personality traits and flight experience (i.e. flight hours), was tested with the level of startle, surprise, stress, and mental workload reported by airline pilots when they performed scenarios in a moving-base simulator. Personality traits were measured using questionnaires, and consisted of trait anxiety, decision-related action orientation (AOD) and failure-related action-orientation (AOF). The latter two traits refer to people's ability to initiate and persist in tasks, and to detach from affective states such as anxiety. A dataset of 89 airline pilots was created using data from four different studies, which involved in total seven different scenarios. We found that pilots with higher trait anxiety reported significantly higher stress in the scenarios, but not significantly higher startle, surprise or mental workload. In contrast to our expectations, there were no significant effects of AOD, AOF or flight experience on pilot responses. When analyzing relationships between pilot responses (controlled for scenario), the strongest significant relationship was found between stress and mental workload (r = 0.469), surprise and mental workload (r = 0.454), and weaker relationships (r ≈ 0.200-0.300) between the other responses. The results indicate that trait anxiety may affect pilots' responses to stressful scenarios, even though pilots are selected based on low trait anxiety. This suggests that some pilots may benefit more than others from training in stress or startle management methods. The identified relationships between pilot responses to the scenarios underline the importance of workload management training and crew resource management training to support pilots in responding to startling and surprising situations.

Introducing a new concept to explain pilot adaptation to abnormal and emergency situations Marielle Plat-Robain

In the management of critical, abnormal and emergency situations in-flight, pilot situation awareness and adaptation to events remain the contributing factors to successful crisis mitigation. However, it is well known that workload, stress and surprises often degrade human performance and sometimes lead to impaired cognitive states. Among them, startle effect, delayed responses and freeze, for which the underlying mechanisms remain partially unexplained.
Here, we propose to introduce the concept of "dissociative state" as an adaptive strategy to cope with these situations and to include it in a revised taxonomy for incident/accident analysis. The novelty of this work resides in a multifactorial approach whose objectives are first to provide an understanding of the role of dissociative states as an adaptive mechanism then to propose design adaptation and training to accompany the pilots in the management of their performance.
In that perspective, we performed a fine grain analysis (actions and verbalisations) of 50 official large commercial aircraft accidents report (all manufacturers), describing the events history and the associated flight crew performance adaptation. Two taxonomies were used: one including relevant/traditional concepts such as surprise, stress, workload and the second introducing the concept of dissociative state as a potential contributor to the reported behaviors. Dissociative states have been reported in the literature as disorganization in the encoding of information, linked to factors such as stress, novelty and workload. Such a state is not to be considered, per se, as a performance degradation factor for flight operations, as it is transient. Our assumption was that dissociation could be an adaptive strategy encountered temporarily by pilots when exposed to surprise, stress, workload and high emotional feelings.
We collected a number of indicators (absorption, confusion, amnesia and loss of control) that seem to support the existence of dissociative states, providing strong arguments for the inclusion of this concept in the existing Human Factors taxonomy. Results show that the objectivation of dissociative states was more frequently observed in cases where severe outcomes occurred.
The consideration of this phenomena might help enhancing cockpit design, pilot's training or operational procedures for future aircraft.

Single Pilot Operations: Performance in Normal and Abnormal Scenarios Niall Miranda

Single Pilot Operations: Performance in Normal and Abnormal Scenarios


Advancements in technology and redundancy in automation have supported the feasibility of single-pilot operations. These operations are established on robust human-machine teaming and effective human oversight. Although adequate training coupled with intuitive human-machine interfaces can enable pilots to simultaneously perform the roles of pilot flying and pilot monitoring, pilots' susceptibility to cognitive overload, particularly in demanding phases of flight, jeopardises the practicality of single-pilot operations. Therefore, the performance of a single pilot in the cockpit requires consideration of psychophysiological factors for effective oversight. This paper presents a study conducted in single-pilot operation settings to evaluate human performance in scenarios that generated different cognitive loads. The study also evaluated participants' cognition and reaction to unanticipated events.


A study involving eighty-two participants was conducted in a high-fidelity cockpit simulator, developed by Cranfield University, Rolls-Royce and DCA Design, called the Future Systems Simulator. Participants were tasked with landing an aircraft in four scenarios varying in visibility and weather conditions. All scenarios presented operational settings to simulate single-pilot operations. Enhanced automation assistance was provided by employing aural annunciation of checklist callouts. The final scenario, however, introduced a failure in the automation system leading to a change in the aircraft's attitude. Participants were required to cognise the failure and correct the attitude in the absence of automation assistance.

Results and Discussion

The study showed that repeated exposure to similar tasks enhanced the participants' performance despite variations in scenarios. The failure in automation led to the startle effect in all participants, however, only twenty-one participants had been successful in landing the aircraft in the final scenario. Participants who were unsuccessful in landing exhibited signs of cognitive incapacitation such as partial or complete loss of situation awareness, attentional tunnelling and inattentional deafness and blindness. Re-exposure to the scenario led to a successful landing from seventy-one participants. The study concluded that unanticipated events, such as a failure in the automation system, would lead to cognitive overload and could inhibit humans from carrying out simple tasks that can otherwise be performed acceptably in single-pilot operations.

The contribution of pilots to resilience in normal operations: A survey approach. Alan Hobbs

Much of our knowledge about human performance in flight safety has come from the analysis of undesired events, whether accidents, incidents, or crew behaviors identified via flight exceedance monitoring or observational techniques. In recent years, there has been an acknowledgement that operational personnel are not merely sources of "human error", but also make a unique human contribution to safe outcomes. In a few celebrated cases, this takes the form of "heroic saves", but on many more occasions, operational personnel contribute to safety through everyday, often-unnoticed actions that turn potentially hazardous situations into non-events.

An emerging approach to safety, frequently referred to as "Safety II," proposes that the positive human contribution is an important and largely untapped source of safety information. Some airlines have successfully trained observers to identify and record the positive behaviors exhibited by the crew over the course of a flight. In other cases, flight crew are interviewed about good practices or positive behaviors. However, each of these methods are relatively limited in scale and resource intensive. A survey could provide a relatively low-cost approach to systematically gather this information on a larger scale.

The primary purpose of the research was to develop and assess a surveys methodology for assessing crews' activities in normal flights and the operational perturbations encountered during normal operations. We hope that such a survey could be both a research tool as well as a safety management aid for the aviation industry.

We collected responses concerning revenue flights from two groups of airline pilots (N = 25 & N= 65). The results indicated that relatively few flights proceeded exactly as in the original flight plan. Pilots routinely anticipated and adapted to changing circumstances. We will review the challenges encountered in developing the survey and summarize preliminary findings from the two survey administrations.

Track I: UAVs

Chair: Viktor Oubaid
What people think of Air Taxis: pros and cons as reported in a German survey. Hinnerk Eißfeldt

There are numerous development projects for passenger drones around the world, several companies have already flown prototypes of electrical vertical take-off and landing aircraft (eVTOL), the first commercial flights of air taxis are planned for 2024 during the Olympics in Paris and the start of regular flight operations has been announced for the coming years.
Noise concerns are among the most important factors influencing the social acceptance of urban air mobility among citizens and therefore represent a potential obstacle to the introduction of air taxis, at least in Europe. One of the potential use cases for air taxis is the performance of security or rescue missions. Here, air taxis or eVTOLs show some potential, as the use of quieter aircraft to carry out security or rescue missions that were previously flown by helicopters could significantly reduce noise pollution for the population, especially in urban areas. Another potential application could be the use of eVTOLs as airport shuttles, which is often supported by investments from major airlines. In the European context, however, this must be supported by public infrastructure such as airports and the corresponding availability of flight zones.
In a nationally representative telephone survey on the acceptance of civilian drones in Germany, which was conducted at the end of 2022, attitudes towards air taxis were relatively balanced, with a slightly negative trend. Inferential statistical analyses showed that factors such as age, gender, active experience with drones, interest in modern technology and interest in environmental protection are significantly associated with attitudes towards air taxis. Following previous findings on the relevance of noise annoyance for the acceptance of drones in general, the study asked for some noise-related information and found that subjective noise sensitivity and general noise annoyance were associated with the acceptance of air taxis. By analysing information from the responses to free-form questions, this paper highlights reasons why public attitudes towards passenger drones in Germany appear to be limited and what factors might influence the willingness to use air taxis once they have been introduced.

Understanding Public Perceptions of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Turkey Ezgi YILDIZ

Advancements in technology have led to the widespread adoption of automation in aviation, notably with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), while progress in artificial intelligence and machine learning has enabled the creation of advanced automatic pilot systems to assist or substitute human pilots across flight phase. The perceived risk associated with new technology integration, influenced by factors such as benefit, knowledge, control, and fear, alongside technological readiness, and individual perceptions, critically affects the likelihood and pace of its adoption, with awareness and knowledge levels playing a pivotal role in shaping public acceptance. The present study aims to translate and adapt the Remotely Piloted Commercial Passenger Aircraft Attitude Scale (RPCPAAS) into Turkish, thereby contributing to the academic literature by investigating individuals' attitudes towards unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and the personal differences that underpin these attitudes. To this end, 938 participants (Mage = 32.89, SDage = 12.41; 54% male) responded to questions about their attitudes towards various uses of unmanned aerial vehicles, The Technology Readiness Index and RPCPAAS. The exploratory factor analysis conducted on the Turkish adaptation of the RPCPAAS corroborated the findings of the original version, with identical items aggregating under the same factors, specifically "Trust in Remotely Piloted Aircraft" and "Trust in On-board Pilot." Furthermore, the scale exhibited high internal consistency, as indicated by Cronbach's alpha coefficients of .81 for the overall scale and .85 and .87 for its subfactors, respectively. Additionally, attitudes towards remotely piloted aircrafts were found to correlate with perceived anxiety associated with flying in unmanned aerial vehicles and technology readiness levels. Ultimately, it was observed that individuals exhibited more favorable attitudes towards remotely piloted aircraft and aircraft operated by single pilots as opposed to fully autonomous aerial vehicles, encompassing both passenger and cargo transport contexts. The replicated factor structure and high internal consistency of the RPCPAAS Turkish adaptation affirm its cross-cultural validity. Moreover, the association between UAV attitudes, perceived anxiety, technology readiness, and a preference for less autonomous aviation systems underscores important factors for UAV integration and acceptance.

Enhancing UAV Traffic Awareness: A Human-in-the-Loop Evaluation of a Camera-View-Based Traffic Display Markus Peukert

The increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has raised concerns about potential conflicts with manned aviation. In recent years, several mid-air collisions have occurred between UAVs and general aviation aircraft. This issue is particularly relevant for beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) operations, where the UAV pilot cannot visually monitor the surrounding airspace. BVLOS operations in low-level airspace are planned for various commercial UAV applications and require solutions to avoid conflicts with manned aviation. Studies have evaluated the use of traffic displays for larger UAVs, mainly in the military context, which operate in higher controlled airspace. However, no study has been conducted for low-level UAV missions with smaller civil UAVs. Therefore, this study performs a human-in-the-loop evaluation of BVLOS UAV missions in uncontrolled low-level airspace in a simulation environment.

The study compares two display configurations. The first configuration uses a moving map along with the camera view of the UAV (as a baseline representative of current practices), while the second configuration incorporates a newly developed camera-view-based traffic display, which also provides conflict information and avoidance maneuver guidance. The flight simulation software X-Plane 12 is used as the simulation environment with a fixed-wing UAV flight model. During the evaluation, participants are tasked to control a fixed-wing UAV on a mission that involves encountering traffic. In some cases, an avoidance maneuver is necessary to prevent conflicts. During the experiment, eye-tracking data is recorded to analyze camera-view and traffic display usage.

The results indicate that the number of conflicts is significantly higher when only using a moving map in conjunction with the camera view, as opposed to using a camera-view-based traffic display. In the baseline condition, some conflicts resulted in near-misses with other traffic, indicating insufficient traffic awareness to safely conduct BVLOS flight missions. In contrast, the usage of the camera-view-based traffic display resulted in no near-misses. The study's insights demonstrate the need to provide UAV pilots with real-time traffic information. Integrating this information into the camera view could be a potential solution for safely integrating UAVs into the current airspace system.

Public acceptance of civil drones in light of their purpose Vaishnavi Upadrasta

Background & purpose: Driven by its diverse technological potential, civilian drones are increasingly being deployed across various sectors and applications. With wider adoption, it remains unclear if the general public will embrace this form of indirect interaction into their everyday lives. Recent studies suggest a growing neutral to positive tendency among the general public towards drone usage, however, this perception seems to vary as per the actual purpose of their application. This study, conducted within an EU project ADACORSA, aims to understand public acceptance concerning specific purposes of drone use.

Method: It introduces five superordinate application-category domains into a new drone acceptance model that draws from the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) and combines relevant concepts/determinants from other drone-specific acceptance theories, such as perceived risks and benefits, as well as incorporates insights from the conducted stakeholder analysis (Upadrasta et. al, 2021) with experts within the drone industry. Subsequently, an online survey made available in in 16 languages, included a total sample of 601 participants across Europe. The objective was twofold: to assess the model validity as well as investigate the relationships between the proposed determinants and acceptance of drone use for each of the five application-categories. Data analysis included structural equation modelling (SEM).

Results: The findings indicate that perceived benefits and perceived risks significantly influence the acceptance of all five application-categories, except for emergency purposes, where risks were found to have no impact. Furthermore, the degree of influence of these factors varied across the application-categories, thus underlining the significance for stakeholders. Additionally, the impact factors are greatly dependable on the application of the drone use. Control opportunities were found to positively affect drone acceptance only for purposes related to state operations such as police surveillance and traffic observation and purposes for benefiting society such as weather monitoring, and infrastructure inspection and maintenance.

Conclusion: The analysis not only furnishes the drone providers with insights on the level of public acceptance towards specific application-categories, but also enables them to position themselves with reference to more widely acceptable drone applications such as emergency use. Consequently, stakeholders can leverage this information in making informed decisions and devising effective mitigation strategies. Lastly, this research contributes by providing an adaptable model that can be utilized to further examine acceptance of other innovative UAV-related applications.

13:00 - 14:00

Lunch break

14:00 - 15:30

Track J: Flight safety and conflict management

Chair: Ioana Koglbauer
Cloudy with a Chance of Ethics: Exploring Moral Injury and Disengagement in Aviation Accident Contexts Ioanna Lekea

This paper critically examines the intricate interplay between moral injury and moral disengagement within the specific context of aviation accidents. By adopting a multidisciplinary approach that integrates ethics, psychology, and safety considerations, the research endeavors to illuminate the implications of these phenomena for flight safety.
At the heart of the investigation are moral injury and moral disengagement, which serve as pivotal concepts. Moral injury is understood as the psychological distress resulting from exposure to events or consequences that challenge an individual's deeply held ethical beliefs or values. Conversely, moral disengagement entails a cognitive process whereby individuals distance themselves from the ethical implications of their actions, often leading to a diminished sense of responsibility or accountability.
The study aims to uncover potential correlations between moral disengagement and the propensity for future aviation incidents. By exploring the psychological mechanisms behind moral disengagement, the study aims to clarify how individuals who are either directly involved in or impacted by aviation accidents are influenced in their subsequent actions or inaction. Methodologically, the research employs a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques, including surveys, interviews, and simulations. These methodologies are designed to provide a comprehensive understanding of the extent and consequences of moral injury and disengagement within the aviation context.
By highlighting the importance of addressing moral injury and disengagement in post-accident interventions, the paper underscores the need for proactive measures to mitigate the psychological and ethical ramifications of aviation incidents. Moreover, it advocates for the development of targeted tools and interventions aimed at detecting and addressing these issues at both individual and organizational levels.

Understanding the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Conflict Management: Insights from Cabin Crew in Aviation Hüseyin Taşçı

Emotional intelligence, the capacity to perceive, comprehend, and regulate one's own emotions and empathize with others', plays a pivotal role in conflict management—the resolution of disagreements arising from divergent views, needs or objectives. By enhancing empathy, emotional regulation, stress management, and communication, emotional intelligence facilitates the constructive resolution of conflicts. In this regard, to understand the relationship between emotional intelligence and deconfliction management; it can contribute to the acquisition of competence in a wide range of areas such as security, personal development, work efficiency, leadership skills, human relations and educational processes. The aviation sector is closely tied to these factors. Hence, it's crucial to explore the impact of emotional intelligence on conflict management within the aviation sector. However, there appears to be a shortage of studies addressing this topic in the existing literature. This study seeks to evaluate the conflict management skills and emotional intelligence levels of cabin crew members to guide the creation of specialized training programs. Cabin crew members are constantly faced with changing and challenging situations. Cabin crew members have to have the skills to cope with different emotional states of passengers, make quick decisions and communicate effectively under stress. The cabin crew sample was preferred to clearly demonstrate the link between deconfliction management and emotional intelligence. A questionnaire will be used as a data collection tool in the study. Within the scope of the study, survey questions will be asked to 150 cabin crew members. This study will utilize the Thomas Conflict Management Styles Model to assess participants' conflict management strategies across dimensions including compliance, conciliation, avoidance, cooperation, and competition. Concurrently, the Emotional Intelligence Scale will be employed to evaluate emotional intelligence, focusing on emotional awareness, expression, understanding, utilization, and management, as well as social skills, self-awareness, empathy, stress coping mechanisms, and social competencies. Correlational analyses will be run to investigate the interrelations between conflict management styles and emotional intelligence. It is expected that this study will provide guidelines for improving the practice of conflict management in the aviation sector and contribute to understanding the role of emotional intelligence in this field.

Flight attendants spech acts and emotional intelligence managing conflictive passengers María José Piñar-Chelso

Flight attendants must persuade to conflictive passengers to comply with safety rules. In this work, it is analyzed the pragmatic communication of cabin crew during interactions with conflictive passengers and no conflictive passengers. Pragmatic communication can be studied by speech acts (Searle, 1969). A speech act is a measurable communicative behavior. In previous studies with first line personnel speech acts have been studied by Styles verbal response modes (VRM) taxonomy which provides a double classification of speech acts by a grammatical form and an interpersonal intent of the speaker. To describe the speech acts of flight attendants managing conflictive passengers 50 interactions were analyzed. Participants were 50 cabin crew members who participate in a role playing with an actor. The actor simulated be a disruptive passenger who had been smoking in the lavatory. For measure de dependents variables these interactions were filmed, and the recordings were analyzed by an expert judge in to evaluate VRM according to Stiles classification of speech acts. Other judges, experts in flight attendant procedures and air lines customers analyzed non-verbal, paraverbal and verbal communication and emotion expression of flight attendants with an observational scale and quality of service and persuasion to do that the passenger to comply with safety rules. The independent variable emotional intelligence was measured doubly. First, ability to identity emotions in faces, voices and postures of flight attendants was measured by DANVA tests. Second, the four branches of de emotional intelligence model of Mayer and Salovey are also measured for flight attendants. Comparative analysis, controlling self-efficacy, perceived stress, emotional dissonance, and personality traits, confirmed results of previous research. Speech acts and emotional intelligence of speakers during an interaction improve the quality of interactions. Results are discussed according to flight safety regulations and quality of service. Implications for crew resource management are provided.

Analysis of the Relationship between Personality, Safety Operation Behaviors and Unsafe Acts among Commercial Airline Pilots in Türkiye Gizem Serin Atis

The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between personality traits, safety operation behaviors, and unsafe acts among commercial airline pilots in Türkiye. A total of 173 pilots, with ages ranging from 20 to 62 years (M= 40.419, SD=8.985), participated in the study. Among the participants, 51.4% of them were Captain Pilots (N=89) and 48.6% of them were First Officers (N=84). Participants' total flying hours in commercial airlines varied from 127 to 28,000 hours (M=6194.38, SD=5344.07). Data were collected using the Basic Personality Trait Inventory (BPTI), Safety Operation Behavior Scale (SOB), and Airline Pilot Behavior Inventory (APilotBI).
In hierarchical regression analysis, APilotBI factors were individually entered as predicted variables, with BPTI and SOB factors entered as predictors in separate steps. Additionally, age and total flying hours in commercial airlines were included as control variables to gauge experience. When the skill-based failures were predicted variable, results indicated a significant association between personality traits and skill-based failures, with neuroticism positively correlated and openness to experience negatively correlated. When SOB factors were introduced, communication and cooperation were positively associated with skill-based failures, while leadership exhibited a negative association with them.
Regarding decision failures, both personality traits and safety operation behaviors showed significant relationship in the model. While personality factors did not achieve significance, SOB factors, particularly communication and cooperation, were positively associated with decision failures. Similarly, for memory failures, personality traits such as neuroticism were positively correlated, whereas openness to experience and negative valence were negatively correlated. Communication and cooperation within SOB also showed a positive association with memory failures.
Procedural incompliance was significantly associated with personality traits, particularly neuroticism, while SOB did not exhibit a significant association. Neuroticism was positively correlated with procedural incompliance, whereas negative valence was negatively correlated with it.
These findings shed light on the relationship between personality traits, safety operation behaviors, and unsafe acts among pilots, underscoring the importance of understanding these factors for enhancing aviation safety. The results will be discussed in detail regarding flight safety.

Track K: HMI and new technology

Chair: Matthew Thomas
Analysis of pilots' acceptance of an assistance system for optimising fuel efficiency in continuous descent operation (CDO) Paul Goesmann

In Theory, Continuous Descent Operation (CDO) promises a substantial increase in fuel efficiency in comparison to a traditional step wise descent. Its full potential, however, has not yet been realised in the field. The prototype of a newly developed assistance system is able to calculate a secondary flight plan for the descent inflight using updated weather data. The use of this system might narrow the gap between the theoretical and practical fuel efficiency advantage of CDO. However, adding yet another assistance system to the already task heavy flight phase of transition from cruise to descent further increases the pilots' taskload. This study examines the pilots' acceptance of this system's prototype.
24 active pilots participated in an online study. The sample included captains and first officers with varying experience. They were presented four flight scenarios and asked to indicate their willingness to use the proposed assistance system in each scenario. The scenarios varied in anticipated workload, remaining fuel on board, flight distance and deviation from scheduled arrival. Subsequently, the participants were asked to evaluate the proposed system quantitatively and give further qualitative feedback. A GEE model was used to evaluate the quantitative data.
The model results imply that the situational workload best predicts the system's use: the system was highly accepted in lesser demanding flight scenarios while its use in more demanding flight scenarios (high traffic, technical incidents, ...) varied between participants. To a lesser extent the pilots' evaluation of the system's usefulness also predicts its use, such that pilots who find the system more useful are more likely to use it. Neither the pilots' evaluation of the system's ease of use nor its compatibility were significant predictors of its use. The qualitative feedback further suggests that an updated version of the proposed system might be regularly used during incident-free flight operation. Practically, the combined results imply a general acceptance of an assistance system aiming at increasing fuel efficiency even if it adds to the pilots' taskload. Further implications for the development of such a system are discussed, as well as theoretical implications regarding the construct of technology acceptance.

Emergency = Emergency? Usability evaluation of a novel emergency alerting system for cabin emergencies Elizabeth Manikath

Emergency alerting systems are an essential part in today´s life and can be found in various places such as e.g. elevators, busses, and trains. However, in an aircraft cabin a dedicated emergency button is not yet common. Moreover, not every emergency perceived by passengers is classified as an emergency from cabin crews' SOP (e.g. flight anxiety). The aim of this study is to understand the requirements on an emergency alerting system from a passengers' and cabin crews' perspective. Based on initial Subject Matter Expert Interviews with cabin crew (n=3) a prototype of an emergency alerting system has been designed. This prototype of an emergency alerting system embedded into the aircraft IFE's system has been presented to passengers (n=96) and cabin crew (n=30). After using the prototype participants needed to rate their perceived workload (NASA TLX) and usability using SUS. Additionally, open ended questions allowed to gain further insights on which information is vital to enhance situation awareness and task response. The average perceived usability rating for the refined emergency alerting prototype was 74 (SD=19.3) and therefore above average scores indicating a good usability. The perceived average workload according to Raw NASA TLX was 24 (SD=22.7), which is moderate. The highest average raw TLX score for the participants was for the item "Performance" with 5.7 which overall can be still considered as low.The results of this study are important to ensure that the design of a future emergency alerting system meets the needs of the primary users (passengers) as well as cabin crew being the secondary users. Which information is necessary for cabin crew to ensure high situation awareness and preparedness. A separate emergency alerting inside the passenger compartment is necessary to ensure the high safety standards of aviation.

Flightcrew Alerting: History, Research, Regulations, and Successes Sherry Chappell

Flightcrew Alerting: History, Research, Regulations, and Successes
Sheryl L. Chappell
International Symposium on Aviation Psychology Organizing Committee

By the 1970s transport aircraft had become complex, resulting in an increase in alert states (e.g., Boeing 747 with 455 alerts). Research revealed that the lack of prioritization, differentiation, and aggregation of flight deck alerts was a safety issue. The qualities of effective alerting were known: quickly orient, explain action needed, convey criticality, minimize false positives/negatives, and indicate adequacy of resolution. In 1981, based on their human factors research, three large transport aircraft manufacturers compiled voluntary standards for alerting systems for the next generation of transport aircraft.

Regulations and advisory materials followed for effective and standardized alerting (e.g., EASA CS 25.1322). To comply, aircraft must have integrated alerting systems with complex logic, centralized data busses, sensors, and displays. Alerts for external hazards such as terrain, windshear, and traffic must also be integrated.

This paper will dive into the human factors science of what to alert, when to alert, where to alert, and how to alert effectively. What to alert is defined by the need for crew attention and action for an off-nominal state that can impact flight safety. These factors contain a fluid spectrum of criticality that must be broken into the four alert levels: warning, caution, advisory, and information. That leads to the discussion of when to alert and when not to. The relative priority of an alert must be adjusted for aircraft conditions, flight conditions, and crew workload. Even a critical alert such as an engine fire is inhibited during high-workload moments in the flight.

Where to alert is the easiest consideration. Centralized notification displays are standardized. The additional and more specific locations are related to where the task is performed, e.g., the primary flight display. The challenges of how to alert most effectively will be addressed. Constrained by standardization, many human factors issues apply including appropriate sensory modality, task saturation, crew coordination, and basic user-interface principles.

The paper will discuss alerting system success and failures. Flight crew training to improve the detection and response to alerts will also be presented.

Human-system interaction analysis of touchscreen in supporting multi-task flight operation. Yifan Wang

Introduction. Touchscreen technology has emerged as a focal point for the future flight deck design. The need for pilots to efficiently handle multiple tasks at once has increased the importance of human-system interface optimization. The potential of touchscreen interfaces to enhance efficiency in human-system interaction significantly influences their applicability within the future flight deck environment. Research questions. The aim of this study is to explore the workload levels of pilots during multi-task flights using a full-touchscreen flight deck, as well as their opinions on its usage. Method. In the experiment, scenarios were simulated where pilots had to manually fly while communicating with air traffic controllers to mimic the multi-task situations using the Future Systems Simulator (FSS). Task completion records were kept, and participants were invited to fill out the NASA-TLX questionnaire and provide feedback post-experiment to analyze the touchscreen's capability in supporting multitasking. There were 15 participants (Age: M = 26.60, SD = 6.22) who were invited in this research. Results. The result showed a NASA-TLX average total scores of 58.81 (SD = 26.53). The main task completion rate was 86.67% and the sub-tasks completion rate was 91.43%. Most participants reported feeling significant pressure during multitasking scenarios. Regarding the application of touchscreens in the flight deck, the majority of participants expressed support, but a minority expressed concerns about the accuracy of using touchscreens and the lack of tactile feedback. Discussion. From the results of the experiment and the participants' feedback, it can be concluded that touchscreen has its advantages in supporting multitasking situations: the high level of integration of information makes it easier to access and output information. Conclusion. Touchscreen technology offers numerous advantages in supporting future flight deck designs. However, whether it enhances human-system interaction between pilots and the flight deck in multitasking scenarios requires further investigation. The Future Systems Simulator (FSS) aids researchers in exploring the potential of full touchscreen flight deck designs. Current findings suggest that the majority of participants are inclined towards embracing this new design and find it user-friendly.

Track L: New trends in training

Chair: Monica Martinussen
Time Flies When You're Watching the Skies: Investigating Boredom in Aviation Maximilian Peukert

Time Flies When You're Watching the Skies: Investigating Boredom in Aviation
In safety critical operations such as the Aviation industry, most operators have careers that are blissfully quiet with many days of routine and satisfactory work. Although pilots and air traffic controllers (ATCOs) train for unusual and novel situations and regularly practice high pressure and high-performance events, the safety system itself depends upon operators having a relatively quiet and monotonous job where nothing out of the ordinary goes wrong. But operators rarely train for this, and relatively little time is devoted to educating and practicing being bored. In the literature of human factors and psychology there is surprisingly little written about how human beings cope with being bored, staying active and alert during monotonous times and, when demanded by situations.
The present study attempted to create a methodology to investigate the presence of boredom and monotony in aviation by means of an online survey. Over three months, aviation professionals from around the world were invited to conduct the short survey. Primarily, the question of the prevalence and potential of boredom amongst civil pilots, ATCOs and technicians were investigated. Secondary to this was to establish a first glance at what kind of coping strategies and/or training and systematic measures were in place to off-set this.
Results from over n = 300 operators, primarily ATCOs and a smaller set of long-haul pilots from over 25 countries are presented. Results indicate that boredom and monotony is present within all operations, particularly amongst ATCOs more so than pilots. Furthermore, results confirm that almost no operators are actively trained either in basic/on-job training or in regular crew resource management on-going training sessions, that there is a lack of systematic countermeasures or procedures in place to assist operators in coping with the phenomenon and that with the rise of automation and finer efficiency margins that the phenomenon is increasing. A concrete set of recommendations based on the qualitative feedback is presented, as well as a discussion of the need for further research on how boredom and monotony affect other outcomes, such as decision-making and fatigue risk management.

Preliminary Findings on Enhancing Ground Training Effectiveness: A Qualitative Analysis of Cockpit Ground Training Instructors' Behaviors and Characteristics from Trainees' Perspectives Canan Ozturk

The aviation sector is a vital component of international transport, with safety being an essential aspect. Pilot training, encompassing ground classes, simulators, and aircraft experience, is essential for assuring safety. Although less frequently underscored in the literature, ground training, being a significant aspect, also demands a highly collaborative approach between instructors and trainees. This study aims to explore the ground instructors' behaviors and personal characteristics from pilot trainees' perspectives in relation to ground training effectiveness. Additionally, it aims to connect observed ground instructors' behaviors with IATA instructor competencies. This research is based on qualitative data obtained from a sample of pilots currently undergoing training at a civil aviation training organization in Türkiye. Twenty pilots were chosen randomly, with 10 undergoing ground courses as the initial phase of their command upgrade training, while the other 10 were enrolled in first officer courses. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted for the collection of data. Examination of the data showed that there was not any significant difference between the responses of two subgroups of pilots. Therefore, thematic analysis was used to analyze the total data which was collected under two primary categories: "Positive Behaviors of Ground Instructors" and "Positive Characteristics of Ground Instructors," both of which contribute to the efficacy of training. According to preliminary results, the main themes of positive behaviors contributing to ground training are "Demonstrating Professional Attitudes and Behaviors" and "Teaching the Course Content Effectively". These main themes were examined for being associated with IATA Instructor competencies through sub-themes by cross matching with related observable behaviors. Pre-findings suggests that the main themes of positive characteristics of ground instructors that contribute to training are "Being Similar or Hierarchically Close to the Trainee", "Being a Role Model for Trainees", "Being an Experienced Captain" and "Having the Skill to Transfer the Knowledge". These findings suggest that instructors' behaviors and characteristics might have a substantial impact on trainees' perception of ground flight training efficiency.

First Results on AMO – A New System for Automatic Flight Performance Monitoring Rebecca Fill Giordano

Training to become a civil or military pilot is an expensive undertaking including many human and financial risks. The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) aims to improve air safety through guidelines and regulations assessing the professional aptitude and training of pilots. The relevance of this issue requires new ways in selection of pilots, as well as a constant monitoring of training progress in a realistic context.
Because operating an aircraft is a complex task, there are many psychological requirements that need to be met and trained. Thus, a professional analytical system giving an objective full view of the "status" of the requirements is needed. Therefore, AMST Systemtechnik GmbH developed, in cooperation with the Salzburg University, and hr+ loving development and modules for pilot-selection and training to enhance flight safety. This innovative simulator-based system, called AMO Automatic Monitoring consists of different modules: Flight Simulation Test (FlyS+) and Multitasking Test (MuTa) combines simulation and multi-tasking analyses and is one of the first systems using flight-relevant simulation tasks. The items have been developed together based on experts' knowledge and experiences, as, for example, pilots. However, given its detailed instructions, the test can easily be used for evaluation of Ab-Initio-Pilots. In FlyS+ the person is instructed of flying on a specified route. The task is to control the aircraft as accurately as possible, according to the instructions by independently operating stick and throttle. The FlyS+ measures analyze the flight quality. Moreover, the subject must perform additional tasks (MuTa), such as pressing a button in a specific circumstance or solving arithmetic problems during the flight, which represent an additional load. Demanding multiple actions at the same time, the MuTa tasks deal with spatial orientation and stress.
Initial runs were carried out with different test subjects to collect data. First results (N=37) show that the reliability analysis of the flight quality indicators and MuTa scores per subtest have a high internal consistency. The analyses of pilots and non-pilots for all scores using the Mann-Whitney U-test provide first results of extreme group validity. Pilots performed better in two out of three flight tasks and in the overall assessment.

Using objective data for the assessment of non-technical competencies Daniela Pistone

This study investigates non-technical competencies essential for initial flight training within the Royal Netherlands Air Force, aiming to explore the feasibility of utilizing objective data from a virtual reality (VR) simulator to assist instructors in evaluating these skills. 15 participants underwent a one-hour sortie in a VR flight simulator, encountering nine predefined "events" designed to elicit behaviours indicative of non-technical competencies. The sortie aimed for realism, allowing participants to navigate familiar routes and employ known procedures. Assessors evaluated participants' performance on three non-technical competencies, with participants also providing self-assessments post-flight.
Objective variables derived from simulator data were analyzed and compared with subjective ratings. Findings highlight challenges associated with assessing non-technical competencies in a realistic setting and underscore the necessity of variations in behaviour. Particularly, events that participants found most challenging or were least familiar with proved effective for assessing the non-technical competencies.
Significant correlations were observed between several objective measures and the subjective assessments. Response time to unexpected events correlated with both decisiveness and flexibility. Gaze shift frequency also correlated with decisiveness and the entropy of gaze behaviour and overall flight time with flexibility. These findings suggest promise in leveraging objective (VR) simulator measurements for training and selection purposes.

15:30 - 18:30

Operational visits and other excursions

A beverage and a snack will be provided 'to go'.

Thursday 26 September 2024

08:00 - 09:00

Registration desk open

09:00 - 09:45

Key note speaker 3

09:45 - 10:15

Best Paper Award Winner

10:15 - 10:45

Coffee/tea break

10:45 - 12:45

Track M: Modern approaches to Mental Health and Resilience

Chair: Robert Bor
An investigation in relation to the exploration of pilot peer support programs' effectiveness Ahmet Arınç Sönmez

Although pilots are perceived as unshakable, strong and highly successful in terms of stress management due to their profession and the tasks they perform, the reality may be different. In situations that go beyond this image of pilots, pilots experience fear of being labeled or job loss, which leads to ignoring or hiding the problems experienced. The Pilot Peer Support Program, which was developed to make pilots aware of their psychological support needs and to create psychosupport elements, can be seen as an application that provides solutions to these problems of pilots. Pilot Peer Support Programs are a social support work that protects pilots from the fear of being labeled or losing their jobs by prioritizing their identities. The program, which has a standardized functioning by the European Aviation Safety Agency, was decided to be implemented in all airlines as of 2018. In Turkey, it has been implemented as of 2019.

In this research conducted within the scope of this thesis, it is aimed to identify the shortcomings of the program and to reveal suggestions about the aspects that need to be improved. The aim of this research is to explore the various factors that might affect the effectiveness of Pilot Peer Support Programs. For this purpose, online in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 pilots who had given support to at least one pilot before. In these interviews, 12 questions were being asked to trained peers and the answers were recorded. After the data collection was completed, content analysis was conducted and suggestions for improving these programs were presented. In the research, it is seen that suggestions such as promoting the program, quality of education, accessibility to peers, and administrative effectiveness come to the fore. Within the scope of the findings, it is seen that the recommendation to increase the case studies, role playing and practical part in the training program attracts attention. In addition, issues such as continuity in education, increasing the duration of education and ensuring content balance in education come to the fore.

Exploring the Perception, Challenges and Benefits of Peer Support Programmes amongst Cabin Crew Jordan Hazrati

Peer support programmes are not new to the aviation industry, after regulation mandated their incorporation for pilots. However, for cabin crew, they remain an unregulated and limited resource.
Twenty cabin crew with current operational experience across a variety of airlines and ranks participated in semi-structured interviews, to determine their views on the perception, challenges and benefits of peer support programmes. Data were analysed using thematic analysis to identify key themes.
Perceptions of peer support were generally positive and involved talking to colleagues about a difficulty that was being experienced to feel 'heard', 'listened to' and supported by those who understood the lifestyle. The potential benefits of peer support were clear, benefitting the individual and organisation, having a perceived positive influence on the mental health and wellbeing of cabin crew However, concerns surrounding the trust and confidentiality of colleagues, as well as barriers to success such as lack of trust of management, financial instability of the industry and organisational culture were highlighted.
Findings include recommendations to research the issues quantitatively with a more diverse group of cabin crew, and to the industry to implement bespoke, externally – managed, programmes, supported by management.

The Impact of an Internet Gratitude Intervention on Repetitive Negative Thinking: An Experimental Study of Commercial Pilots Matthias Groppe

Introduction: Occupational or psychosocial stress of flight crews may be the cause of disorder-independent repetitive negative thinking (RNT) in the cockpit. With commercial pilots being exposed to work related stressors interfering with social life, habitual formation of dark or negative thoughts can emerge with inherent symptoms of rumination, anxieties, and altered decision making. Such symptoms imply flight safety risks for aircrews. Interventions that target the evolution of RNT might thus prevent its development and provide strategies for coping with such specific stress. Research Question: Is a perseverative internet gratitude intervention task able to reduce repetitive negative thinking among commercial pilots? Method: Using an online gratitude intervention task with self-reported measurement in a longitudinal pretest-posttest-control group design, a content-independent self-reported thinking RNT questionnaire was applied to identify the influence of a gratitude intervention on pilots' thinking style. A total of 36 commercial pilots were randomized to either the intervention group or control group. Data were collected at baseline (t1) and after a two-week post intervention period (t2). The outcome was measured via the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ). Results: Participants of the intervention group reported significantly less RNT at t2 (d = 0.51) as compared to the control group. Reliable improvements of participants from t1 to t2 in the intervention group were reported by 23% (n = 8.5). Sensitivity analysis supported results at t2 as robust. Discussion: The significance of a positive psychology intervention for preventing the development of RNT is being debated. Common sources of occupational stress need to be identified that cause RNT among pilots. This paper critically evaluates strengths and weaknesses of the proposed intervention and explores its relevance and applicability for the work context of an airline cockpit. Conclusion: A perceived misunderstanding of pilots' basic needs may underlie occupational or psychosocial stress emerging in the cockpit. The gratitude intervention task applied in this study was feasible and well-accepted for assessing pilots' RNT. However, their effect on overall well-being remains unclear. Our results support more extensive trials that focus on behavioral outcomes for reducing RNT and improving pilot mental health.

Collegiate Pilot Trust in the FAA Aeromedical System Austin Walden

Aviation mental health has become an open topic of discussion after decades of self-imposed silence from the aviation community. Older generations of pilots may have felt unable to discuss mental health needs in a constructive way for a variety of reasons including fear of job loss stemming from punishment from the Federal Aviation Administration. Younger generations of college students, however, have been brought up to fully embrace mental wellness as an everyday dialogue and have largely lost the stigma. This attitude gap towards mental health in aviation may lead to an increase in the pilot shortage at best as younger prospective pilots are precluded from aviation, or at worst lead to preventable accidents as pilots feel they must hide mental health issues from the FAA.

This quantitative study seeks to identify and explore the factors influencing trust among collegiate pilots in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aeromedical system, specifically focusing on mental health. Our research employs multiple regression analysis to identify key predictors affecting trust in the FAA aeromedical system recognizing the unique perspective of collegiate pilots and the potential influence of generational age differences,

Data has been anonymously collected through a comprehensive survey distributed among collegiate pilots, capturing their demographic information, flight experience, interactions with the FAA aeromedical system, and perceptions of its effectiveness in assessing mental and physical health. The survey includes questions on factors such as Trust in the FAA, Trust in Aviation Medical Examiners, Openness for Mental Health, and etc.

Younger collegiate aviators are of interest because they are likely new to aviation, and new to the medical system. Their fresh perspectives of the FAA aeromedical system are invaluable as they will ultimately become the pilots, administrators, and bureaucrats as they age. Understanding collegiate pilots and their trust in todays FAA's aeromedical system can help aviation safety in the short and long-term. The findings are anticipated to contribute to the ongoing efforts to improve the well-being of collegiate pilots and promote a culture of safety in aviation.

Integrating Mental Health into Aviation Safety in an AI-powered Future Nicola Cavagnetto

The tragic events of Germanwings 2015 exposed a critical gap in aviation safety: the inadequate consideration of pilots' well-being. This paper delves into a two-fold approach, encompassing both crew and management perspectives, to prioritize well-being and mental health as the cornerstones of future aviation safety.

Drawing insights from the MESAFE (MEntal health for aviation SAFEty) and HAIKU (Human AI teaming Knowledge and Understanding for aviation safety) projects, we bridge the gap between current crew training and a future shaped by AI-powered intelligent assistants. Acknowledging existing stressors like fatigue and workload, we propose solutions tailored to the unique mental challenges posed by AI integration. Crucially, we advocate for an evolution of the "just culture" concept, shifting its focus from solely addressing reported errors to proactive early detection and prevention of mental health concerns. This proactive approach could foster open communication and trust within the air transport workforce, positively impacting safety and performance.

Leveraging on the results of the MESAFE project and anticipating future trends as outlined in the HAIKU project's operational use cases, we propose an evolution of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training. This enhanced training equips aircrews with the necessary tools to navigate future stressors, ensuring a mentally healthy workforce and safeguarding the skies for everyone.

By seamlessly integrating these initiatives, we pave the way for a future where mental well-being leads to aviation safety, ensuring a journey that is not only physically safe but also mentally sound for all actors involved.

Track N: Selection

Chair: Alexanger Heintz
Using perceptual speed tests to improve pilot selection Diane Damos

Perceptual speed (PS) tests have been commonly used in both military and civil pilot selection batteries for many years. Nevertheless, the available PS data do not fully answer three questions that are important for modern pilot selection. First, what are the effects of age on PS? Currently, professional flight training may begin in the late teens and air line pilots may be hired in their 40's. How do PS test scores change over this period? Second, are there gender differences? Third, what is the relation between PS, personality traits, and other cognitive abilities? This paper provides data addressing these three questions.

Subjects. A military sample included 71,590 officer candidates ages 17 to 40. Of these 4,882 candidates completed initial military flight training.
Instruments. All candidates completed a test battery assessing cognitive abilities and a Big Five personality inventory. PS was assessed using a 7-minute, paper-and-pencil test consisting of 40 items with five alternatives.

Effect of Age. The number correct (NC) increased gradually from age 17 to 27 in the officer candidate sample and from age 18 to 29 in the pilot sample. Scores gradually declined for the officer candidates but not for the pilots. Pilots outperformed the officer candidates across all ages.
Gender. Female pilots performed slightly better than male pilots on both number correct (NC) and number wrong (NW). In the officer candidate sample, both NC and the NW were lower for females than males, but the differences were small.
Cognitive Abilities and Personality. NC showed strong positive correlations with measures of both quantitative and spatial ability, whereas NW showed strong negative correlations with the same measures. Neither NC nor NW correlated with any personality dimension.

The results will be discussed in terms of prior findings on the general civilian population and on civilian pilots. The lack of both gender differences and an age-related decline in scores for pilots suggests continued, and possibly increased, use of PS tests in pilot selection. All correlations between PS scores and personality dimensions were very low. The relation between PS, spatial ability, quantitative ability, and personality should be investigated further.

Project SOAR - Simulator-based, Machine Learning-modelled, Psychophysiological Measurement-augmented, Pilot Screening in the Republic of Singapore Air Force Joshua Lim

Project SOAR uses a simulator-based assessment centre approach aimed at screening for pilot potential in the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF). Against the backdrop of a shrinking talent pool and lean resources, SOAR aims to leverage simulators, data science and other emerging technology to enhance effectiveness and optimise efficiency for pilot screening in the RSAF. The SOAR assessment centre uses simulator-based screeners to assess candidates over ten days, through four standardised simulated training/mission sorties. Primary assessments include standardised task performance and behaviour-based observations by RSAF Qualified Flying Instructors (QFIs) and Aviation Psychologists (AvPsychs), as well as objective mission and task performance parameters measured by the simulator. Psychophysiological measures (PPM), eye trackers, electroencephalograms (EEG), electrocardiograms (ECG), video-based emotion coding, as well as simulator exhaust data were explored as means to augment task and behaviour-based assessments.

Predictive Validity of Selection and Training for Ab Initio Air Traffic Controllers Anna Seemüller

The job of an air traffic controller (ATCO) is highly demanding with a high level of responsibility. DLR German Aerospace Center has been conducting a long-standing multi-phase, multi-modal selection procedure to identify suitable applicants for ab initio ATCO training at German Air Navigation Service Provider DFS Deutsche Flugsicherung GmbH. The selection phases comprise cognitive performance tests, work sample tests, assessment center team exercises, and interviews with a final assessment by a selection board. To ensure quality and to further optimize selection and training, we conducted a large-scale validation study with a validation sample of 603 ATCO trainees and a reference sample of 13,133 applicants. DFS ATCO training consists of the initial training (IT) with theoretical lessons and simulations, followed by the unit training (UT), a supervised training on live-traffic. For the first time, comprehensive performance data from the unit training were available. Applicants' performance in each selection phase and additional biographical information were used to predict training success (i.e. pass/fail) and training performance criteria in IT and UT. To determine the predictive validity, statistical analyses were performed. Despite the general methodological challenge of variance restriction in validation studies, training outcomes were successfully predicted by selection. The results showed that cognitive performance was predictive for IT training criteria, whereas work sample performance showed predictive validity for IT and UT training criteria. The team exercises, though not predictive for training criteria, demonstrated predictive validity for the interview success. Since they were designed to provide hypotheses for the interview, they contributed to the final selection board assessment of social competence. With regard to the interview predictors, final selection board assessments on general motivation, vocational motivation, and social competence showed predictive validity for training criteria. Overall, the findings confirmed the predictive validity of the DLR selection procedure for ATCO training, which, for the first time, included predictions of UT performance.

Assessing psychological requirements of operational work in aviation – status-quo and research needs Carmen Bruder

For many decades, aviation psychologists have been concerned with the question of what psychological requirements the operational work in aviation demands on human operators. Aviation operators, such as air traffic controllers, pilots or airport operators work together in control centres in interaction with technical systems to achieve efficient and safe operation. In teams and multi-teams, they have to work under time pressure to supervise complex dynamic processes as well as decide for remedy.

For the selection of personnel and the training of operational staff, it is essential to identity the psychological requirements on the job holders. Add to that, technological progress, among other things in form of increasing automation leads to changes in the operators' tasks, operational concepts, human-technology-interaction and situational factors. Therefore, we will continuously be accompanied by the question of what influence these changes have on the operational work in aviation.

Aviation psychologists and Human Factors experts have various methods in their backpack for assessing psychological requirements, as expert methods, task-analytical methods and character-based analysis. In order to determine the status-quo and future needs, the aviation psychologists carry out workplace inspections, workshops and/or surveys with operational staff. In doing so, the requirements for air traffic controllers, pilots and other operators for personnel selection and training were derived.

After an introduction in this field, the authors give an overview on their broad experience in assessing current and future psychological requirements and derive research needs. This contribution aims to give practitioners an overview about methods, studies and findings.

The relative importance of selection and training approach in predicting pilot theoretical knowledge performance – a case study. Bengt Magne Svendsen

Obtaining an Airline Transport Pilot License requires candidates to master a diverse set of knowledge and skills within a constrained time frame. Consequently, ATO's invest time and resources in both developing valid selection procedures and developing efficient training programs. This study examines the interplay between candidate selection processes and instructional approaches on ATPL theoretical knowledge performance, leveraging a natural experiment prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Ab initio selection has a long history in aviation, and it is generally accepted that a thorough and valid selection procedure increases the probability of candidate success. Similarly, ATO's have some freedom in how training programs are designed. Flight-training can be provided either with an integrated approach, mixing theoretical ATPL studies with practical flying lessons throughout the course, or with a modular approach, where students complete the ATPL theoretical studies entirely before moving on to practical flight training. Both approaches have their advantages. Integrated training merges theoretical knowledge with practical flying lessons, providing a seamless learning experience that can enhance knowledge retention and understanding. This is often characterized with focusing on hours in the classroom. Modular training offers flexibility, both for the student and the training organization, and emphasizes self-study and computer-based training (CBT). The present research focuses on how selection and training approach influences candidates final scores, by comparing scores on 11 ATPL – theory CAA-exams from three groups of students, that are either (1) highly selected and following a modular approach or (2) not-selected and following a modular approach, or (3) highly selected following an integrated approach. The results will explore the importance of selection and the ATO's approach to theoretical knowledge instruction, controlling for the number of hours with classroom instruction compared to number of hours allocated to self-study and computer-based training. Our findings aim to illuminate the relative contributions of selection processes and training approaches to theoretical knowledge attainment in pilot training, offering insights into optimizing ATPL education. This exploration is crucial for ATOs striving to enhance training efficiency and candidate success in the evolving landscape of aviation education.

12:45 - 13:45

Lunch break

13:45 - 15:45

Track O: Recruitment, Diversity and Generational differences

Chair: Rebecca Fill Giordano
Aviation Safety in recruiting process using the Example "Insider Threat Risk" Joerg Prieler

Due to developments regarding an increasing insider threat risk, we developed 7 years ago an online Test -Tool (Insider Threat Risk-Inventory, ITR) in intensive cooperation with special counter-terrorism units from German speaking countries, which can be used during recruiting for the early detection of people prepared to use violence (assassins, "sleepers"; extremists, identitarians).

During the development of the procedure, the focus was also placed on recognizing aggravation/dissimulation tendencies ("deliberate dissimulation").

The inventory is currently being used by a European airline.

Furthermore, since January 2022, the DVO (EU) 2015/1998 and 2020/910 apply to the recruitment procedures of aviation-related companies (security, control personnel, technicians, ground and cabin staff, suppliers...) concerning the check of critical mental deficits, which the Tool also does.

We analyzed the data concerning Insider Threat Risk of 25.000 persons (Cabin-Crew, Pilots), who took part in the recruiting process in the last 5 years. Test result-Differences in gender, age, job position and cultural background (the Tool is available in several languages) are presented. We also did put a view on the result's temporal development (we have started before Corona) and analyze, what influence Corona had to the test results in general and to specific groups.

Shifting Paradigms in Airport Security: A Qualitative Exploration of Multidimensional Recruitment Criteria Elene STRAYER

Introduction: French airport security recruitment protocols are scrutinized to address national security and internal threat concerns. The study questions the reliance on traditional methods like criminal background checks and standard assessments, calling for an expanded competency review. The aim is to assess if current practices sufficiently address the multifaced demands made on the industry and comply with strict regulatory standards.

Methods: Employing multi-case methodology (Yin, 2018), interviews were conducted between 2019 and 2021 during significant regulatory changes. The sample, 24 experienced professionals from recruiters to heads of criminal investigations, offered a comprehensive view of the recruitment landscape. Over 250 pages of transcripts were analyzed via the ATLAS.ti software. Thematic content analysis included phenomenological examination, conceptual category analysis, and process modeling to surface themes regarding recruitment challenges and improvements inductively. Seventy-eight codes were extracted, encapsulating airport security recruitment complexities. These codes were refined from keywords to broad concepts, reducing redundancy and distilling the most salient themes. Methodological triangulation ensured the study's analytical robustness and integrity.

Results: The findings reveal a preference for regulatory compliance and procedural knowledge over critical intrapersonal and cognitive skills in current recruitment protocols. Despite the rigorous requirements for regulatory adherence, there is an evident shortfall in recognizing the importance of resilience, loyalty, and integrity. Furthermore, the ability to manage stress, conflict, and analytical thinking is not adequately prioritized. The data indicate that these intrapersonal and cognitive skills are crucial for operational success and should be emphasized more in recruitment assessments.

Discussion-Conclusion: Recognizing the constraint of limited sample size and diversity, the qualitative nature of the study, and the potential for selection bias, these findings provide an initial framework for a more nuanced recruitment model. Implications drawn from a French context suggest broader applicability and necessitate further validation across diverse operational environments. Future research could extend to the role of autonomous motivation, informed by Self-Determination Theory, and its integration with personality measures and attitudes toward integrity. Overall, this study lays the groundwork for revising recruitment criteria to better align with the complex nature of security in airports, integrating cognitive and ethical dimensions.

Generation X, Y, Z et al.: Have the reasons to apply for an ATCO training changed over time? Alexander Heintz

At all times, perceived characteristics of youngsters have been debated and compared to former generations. In the last decades, labels such as Generation X, Y, Z or "Baby Boomers" have become popular to frame this discussion. Reasons for training problems of trainee Air Traffic Controllers, pilots or other professions have been attributed to perceived changes in characteristics and motivations of these "Generations".
Inspired by a US study from Broach & Cannon (2011) analysing the evolution of reasons to apply for an Air Traffic Controller (ATCO) training, questionnaire data on perceived attracting factors of and reasons to apply for an ATCO career collected between 1999 and 2024 are analysed and compared. Data from application and/ or biographical questionnaires (N>3000 for each subsample) as well as from market research among applicants (N > 100 for the subsamples) are compared based on relative frequency as well as mean comparisons for selected cross sectional subsamples and aspects (e.g. mobility, advisors with regard to job choice, interest in aviation etc.). The subsamples over time are comparable due to similar entry requirements. Data from formats which make desirable answers more or less likely, are compared. For recent years, potential effects of performance aspects such as general mental abilities could be controlled for.
Despite some shifts observed in particular factors, there seems to be more continuity than change across the various generations discussed in this time period. Potential impacts and explanations, and moderating factors such as social desirability, training demand and intensity of job marketing will be discussed.

Gender differences in Pilot Training Jeroen van Rooij

The aviation industry has long been characterized as male-dominated, with training programmes traditionally designed by and for men. Selection and training are validated using groups that consist of around 95% men and even the aircraft themselves have of course been designed, built and maintained primarily by men for men. This inherent gender bias poses a challenge for the industry, perhaps even more so now we are facing a substantial pilot shortage.
There have, in the past, been many interventions and actions to increase women's representation in piloting, both civil and military aviation. Gibbon (2004) speaks of a number of measures taken, such as increasing peer support, female role models and female buddy programmes. In 2008 the "Teaching women how to fly" research project even identified 101 different ideas on how to increase the number of female pilots (Hamilton, 2014). In their top 10 ways to increase female success in pilot training they included #5 Develop "Female Friendly Flight Training" specifying that more simulator time is needed. The "Teaching women how to fly"-project concluded that there is a need to recognize the difference between male and female learning styles and strengths recommending that sequence of instruction is flexible.
In fact, a thorough literature review (outside of aviation) conducted in 2022, concluded that gender influences training outcomes and that a gender-sensitive approach would be much more appropriate (Kroese, 2022). Current training and education however, in- and outside of aviation is usually delivered in a gender-neutral manner and gender effects don't tend to be integrated into training and educational theories, design, or implementation (Criado-Perez, 2019).
There has however been very little quantitative research to support the above advice. This study looks at MPL and MCC flight training data from a major European flight school .The dataset includes grades, instructor gender, attendance, hours, numbers of repetitions and reasons for repetition, and pass/fail. Differences in performance according to gender were studied to support the claims above that more simulator time is advantageous and to provide a quantitative insight into what 'female friendly flight training' might be. Data is still being analyzed at the time of writing so results are not yet available.

Team diveristy in ATM Europe: a new human factor to safety? Milena Bowman

Team diversity refers to all visible and invisible traits which make people unique, leading individuals to the perception that another person is different from self (Ely & Thomas, 1996; Van Knippenberg et al., 2004). Various diversity categories may create in a team hypothetical dividing lines, called faultlines, that split the team into subgroups affecting its cohesion and efficiency (Spoelma & Ellis, 2017; van Knippenberg et al., 2011a; Wegge et al., 2020). Even though team diversity and faultilines influence team's performance (Martins & Sohn, 2021; van Knippenberg et al., 2011b) they have not yet been well studied in aviation teams despite the fact that human factors are found to be a leading cause in aviation accidents (Kelly & Efthymiou, 2019; Kharoufah et al., 2018). This paper aims to investigate the diversity changes in European Air Traffic Management (ATM) teams, identify the most saliant faultlines in ATM teams, and consider diversity relevance to safety climate.
To answer the research questions, 28 semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants from 11 European Air Traffic Control Centers. Thematic analysis was applied to the transcribed and pseudonymized interviews. The study found that the most saliant faultilines in ATM teams are gender, age, experience, and management. Furthermore, the results showed that while most of the people perceived diversity as relevant to the safety climate of the team, the phenomena is not reflected yet in ATC work practices neither in human factors, nor in supervisory training.
This paper proposes further studying of the influence of diversity on aviation team work could contribute to improving safety culture. The qualitative findings should be further tested by quantitative controlled experiments to understand the mechanisms through which diversity may interplay with safety, decision-making and organisational climate in the ATM industry. In addition, given the importance of emotional intelligence on safety (Bates, 2023), this paper calls for further research on how ATM teams' diversity faultilines, identifying new training needs, and decision-making practices that include diversity as a factor in human factor studies. Findings from these studies could be also beneficial for other high-risk organizations.

Gen Z and the Pandemic: What does the new generation expect? Caroline Creane

The pandemic has reshaped many employee's attitudes and perceptions of work, rapidly shifting priorities away from salary as the primary motivating factor and onto finding more meaningful, flexible work that supports personal development and a healthy balance with home life. In particular, the 'Gen Z' age group (currently aged between 12 and 27) who are now reaching the age to start their pilot training and entering the aviation workforce, have different expectations on what 'work' should look like. Research is showing that they place greater emphasis on mental well-being at work – including feeling supported in maintaining their mental health, and seeking roles that offer greater flexibility to support work-life balance; they are also more likely than any previous generation to feel that mental health directly impacts their role performance, which can lead to attrition. They are looking for employers who offer opportunities for ongoing development, and those who align with their values on things like sustainability and diversity. Additionally, as a tech-savvy generation with the world at their fingertips, through smartphones, workplace technology can also be a deciding factor on their motivation to join a particular organisation. While the emphasis of pilot selection has always been on finding the most appropriate candidates for the role, this is always a two-way process that influences the candidate's perception of their fit for the organisation as well as vice-versa, and in a time of pilot shortage, the candidate's experience of the assessment may be an additional deciding factor when weighing up different airline or training options. So, how might these generational differences affect Gen Z's expectations of the selection process? How can we best design the process to meet these expectations and account for potential differences in values, while still ensuring a fair and representative assessment? Symbiotics will share some of their insights from survey data as well as trends observed and analysed in selection data gathered over the past few years, spanning thousands of aviation professionals and aspiring pilots.

Track P: Safety and Risk Management

Chair: Julia Behrend
Reporting of automation dependency in air transport aircraft accidents Eric Roberts

Introduction. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) tasked the Personnel Training and Licensing Panel (PTLP) Working Group 1 with various tasks, including, determining the scope of automation dependency in air transport aircraft worldwide. The tasking was a high priority given the international interest in vulnerabilities to increasing application of automated systems in air transport flight decks. One of the vulnerabilities identified is automation dependency. Automation dependency is when the pilots accept what the aircraft automation is doing without adequately monitoring or confirming that the aircraft is doing what they expected or wanted it to do. Automation dependency is also commonly referred to as automation over-reliance and automation complacency within existing literature. One of the key findings of the final study report was that automation dependency goes under-reported in accidents and incidents that demonstrate indicators of the concept. Research question. This analysis explores the instances of appropriate identification of automation dependency versus the lack of identification of automation dependency when indicators were present in air transport aircraft accidents reporting. Method. 28 air transport accident reports, that were determined to demonstrate automation dependency by the MITRE Corporation Center for Advanced Aviation System Development and the ICAO Working Group 1, were systematically reviewed for confirmatory identification of automation dependency by the investigation report. Results. 6/28 (21%) of the reports explicitly stated automation dependency or other common terminology within the report. 2/28 (7%) of the reports included language that eluded to automation dependency. Discussion. Accurate tracking of instances of automation dependency in accident and incident reports is challenging due to inconsistent identification of the phenomena within reports. As the accident reports that were reviewed demonstrate indicators of automation dependency, it was expected that the reports would contain language that identified it as such, though the majority did not meet this expectation. There may be benefits to improving appropriate identification of automation dependency reporting when indicators are present to ensure cases are adequately addressed, tracked, and potential mitigations developed. Conclusion. The majority of air transport accident reports did not identify the presence of automation dependency when indicators were present.

The Reporting Culture in Hellenic Airspace: Attitudes and Perspectives of Greek Pilots towards Incident Reporting Panagiotis Kioulepoglou

The establishment of a robust reporting culture constitutes a foundational prerequisite within safety management, particularly concerning the reporting of incidents. While a substantial body of knowledge is available globally, research specific to Greek pilots remains limited.
Qualitative methods involved semi-structured interviews with Greek pilots, aimed at elucidating their perspectives and attitudes towards the reporting of incidents. A holistic approach was adopted, encompassing interviews with military, commercial, and general aviation pilots exclusively operating in Greece. A combination of thematic and content analysis, complemented by InVivo quoting, was chosen to ensure a nuanced representation of the interviewees' narratives.
Primary barriers to reporting intentions included fears of career progression, stigmatization, and perceived threats to job security. Additionally, a portion of participants expressed a lack of perceived value and usefulness as inhibiting factors. Furthermore, the presence of Flight Data Monitoring (FDM) equipment emerged as a pivotal factor influencing reporting decisions of commercial pilots.
The findings necessitated enhanced training for new pilots, emphasizing the benefits of voluntary reporting to cultivate an effective reporting culture. The pivotal role of executive staff in fostering a safety culture within the respective organization was underscored. More rigorous research on this direction is recommended concerning the reporting culture of Greek pilots as the existing knowledge on the field is very limited at a national level.

Problem Detection during Manual and Automated Flight Annemarie Landman

We tested whether pilots would detect low-salient controllability problems more quickly in manual compared to automated flight. Using a moving-base simulator and a Piper Seneca aerodynamic model, airline pilots (n = 20) performed a number of test and distraction scenarios. One test scenario featured a gradually ensuing single-engine failure, and a second scenario featured an icing accumulation on the elevator. Both test scenarios were performed once using manual control and once using autopilot control, and were alternated with distraction scenarios. The icing accumulation was detected marginally significantly more quickly in manual than in automated flight p = 0.058, while there was no significant difference for the engine failure, p = 0.888. Both problems were in manual flight most likely discovered due to aircraft motions or control forces. Interestingly, there were several late detections of problems in manual flight, which appeared to be caused by subconscious manual corrections. In automated flight, the engine failure was most likely discovered due to the engine manifold pressure indication on the display, while the icing accumulation was most often discovered due to control column motion. The results thus underline the importance of using back-driven controls during automated flight. They also indicate that manual flight does not necessarily lead to quick detection of slowly emerging problems as pilots may subconsciously correct for aircraft motions.

Designing a Lean Flow Chart for Risk Management: Building Workplace Resilience on Employee Health and Wellness Triant Flouris

The work environment of the aviation industry is characterized by high levels of technology, noise, intercultural communication, complexity, and contact. In this framework, employees play a key role in controlling the associated risks. Safety in the workplace is a top priority for aviation industry operations. In the current study, a systemic approach is proposed that aims to increase worker empowerment by effectively managing workplace risks that could result in disease, incident, accident, or disability as well as by fostering a safer atmosphere that boosts productivity and performance.
To achieve this objective, the flowchart technique was applied as a means of clearly visualizing aviation workplace risks and comprehending the origins of workplace hazards, the locations and timing of potential incidents, and their implications and domains of influence. Thus, this technique significantly contributes to documenting, analyzing, planning, improving, and communicating complex processes in aviation work environments through diagrams. Finally, flowcharts significantly contribute to a better understanding and enhancement of the effectiveness of risk management in the workplace. Fifteen experts (n=15) from several aviation industry areas and European countries participated in a brainstorming session using the flowchart technique, which produced meaningful and practical outcomes. By taking the appropriate steps and choosing the courses of action that result in the desired outcome, this strategy simplifies complicated operations and contributes to safer operations.
The study's outcomes highlighted specific actions that promote health and safety. In particular, the elimination of business processes that are not essential or valuable to create a clearer and easier-to-understand working environment is suggested. It is also vital to have a culture that prioritizes the welfare of the workforce. The results of this study can improve the work environment of aviation organizations because the adoption of a lean risk management approach provides employees with high levels of awareness to identify and handle risk factors that could result in accidents, illnesses, and injuries. The suggested strategy empowers employees and builds more resilient workplaces.

A Principled Approach to Procedure Design Barbara Holder

The go-around maneuver is executed during a critical phase of flight, often unexpectedly, and requires pilots manage a series of complex tasks, in dynamic situations. Crew workload in the maneuver may significantly increase and lead to an increased risk for Loss of Control In-flight (LOC-I). Pilots use the go-around procedure to guide their execution of the maneuver. This research aimed to mitigate the risks of LOC-I in the go-around by applying a principled approach to the design of the go-around procedures. We applied modern cognitive science to revise the go-around procedures to organize flight crew activity to enable the appropriate allocation of cognitive resources and effectively direct flight crew attention to the right flight path parameters at the right time.

We accomplished the directing of attention to flight path with three key design changes:
• Callouts that specify trigger conditions and actions;
• Actions focus on setting flight path targets, verification, and monitoring; and,
• Delegation of the aircraft configuration cleanup task sequence to the pilot monitoring role.
In addition to directing attention, we also designed the procedures to be flexible to help pilots adapt task accomplishment to flexibly fit the variations in operating situations. We accomplished flexibility with two key design changes:
• Callout actions were adaptable to the specific situation; and,
• Structured action sequence flexibility for specific tasks.
Lastly, we revised the procedure to be less susceptible to single-point failures, where an interruption to the callout sequence disrupts the entire procedural flow. This was accomplished by specifying joint responsibility for callouts.

We evaluated the procedures at a major U.S. airline using full-motion simulators and airline pilots as the participants. We designed the evaluation scenarios to specifically exercise the key design changes to the procedures. The results suggest the new procedure design did organize flight crew activity and direct the allocation of attention as the design intended. We are encouraged by the results of this study and suggest our new approach to designing flight deck procedures represents a starting point for redesigning procedures using a promising new principled approach.

15:45 - 16:15

Coffee/tea break

16:15 - 17:30

Conference Closing

19:00 - 23:00

Gala dinner

(The gala dinner will be followed by a disco until 02:00)

Thank you to our sponsors

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